"A girl is eating an apple."
Translation:Dziewczyna je jabłko.
Dziewczynka /dziewczynką they are different forms of the same word. In Polish nouns change with cases- there are 7.
Which one you use depends on what function in the sentence they have, which verb or preposition they follow.
Nominative=dziewczynka- is a basic form found in dictionaries. It is for subject of the sentence, and sentences with word "to"
Instrumental=dziewczynką (nr 5 in tables) - is a form that - 1) follows some verbs, most common "być"=to be 2) follows some prepositions, most common z = with 3) to indicate instrument used , instead of with=using
Dziewczynka je jabłko = A girl is eating an apple
Kasia to dziewczynka= Kasia is a girl
Kasia jest dziewczynką= Kasia is a girl
Asia idzie z dziewczynką do parku =Asia is walking to a park with a girl.
In case you also wondered what is the difference between dziewczyna and dziewczynka- dziewczynka is female child, dziewczyna is female teenager/young woman/girlfriend
Yes, the "k" in dziewczynka is diminutive from what I've been told.
About the examples...
You have one saying "Kasia to dziewczynka" meaning, very basically, "Kasia this girl" (if Google Translate is correct XD) which is nominative but then, You have the other saying "Kasia jest dziewczynką" meaning, again basically, "Kasia is girl" which you say is instrumental? But surely both examples are exactly the same? Or is it all to do with changing "to" to "jest"?
Btw, you got nominative and instrumental the wrong way round in the first half I think (unless I've been told wrong XD)
"Kasia to dziewczynka " and" Kasia jest dziewczynką" mean exactly the same thing, using different grammar.
I don't see any mistake, but just to be sure-
dziewczynkA=nominative(1)=subject of the sentence and after "to"
dziewczynkĄ=instrumental(5)= after jest, after some prepositions, "using"
more for new learners, for two years later it is probably not relevant already )))):
SO, the phrase with to in Polish means rather
Kasia, this (is) a girl, but jest(is) is omitted in this construction. It is really hard to explain the difference in English, where nouns don't decline, it is easier to use pronouns, which still have 3 forms(like I, me,my).
So the difference is approximately like in the two following examples (not literally, just to give an idea, how it works):
1) That's I, who did it.
2)That's me, whom you can blame (in smth).
Just can't find a good example for the instrumentative, relevant to this case, because in the phrases with jest, followed by a noun in Insrumentative case, there's no idea of instruments or using smth to do smth, it's just a habitual grammar construction, e.g. such construction is also popular in Ukrainian, but for Russian ear it would sound weird, though theoretically it is possible (because in Russian it is common to omit the verb to be in Present Tense, so in Russian it would be like Kasia - girl with pause between 2 nouns, when speaking, or with en dash sign, when written).
I believe it's more about female children, but maybe(not sure) it might be used for adult females, say if there's a tint of parent-daughter relation (psychological, not only blood-related) between the two. Native speakers, correct me if I'm wrong, at least in Russian and Ukrainian (and probably in Belorussian) it works like this.
This is actually not a form of the letter t, but of the letter "l" (lowercase L). First, install the Polish keyboard. Then you can type it by:
On a phone: by holding the letter L, until the menu will pop up with the alternative letter.
On Windows using the Polish programmer layout: by pressing Right Alt and L at the same time.