"A girl is eating an apple."
Translation:Dziewczynka je jabłko.
Dziewczynka /dziewczynką they are different forms of the same word. In Polish nouns change with cases- there are 7.
Which one you use depends on what function in the sentence they have, which verb or preposition they follow.
Nominative=dziewczynka- is a basic form found in dictionaries. It is for subject of the sentence, and sentences with word "to"
Instrumental=dziewczynką (nr 5 in tables) - is a form that - 1) follows some verbs, most common "być"=to be 2) follows some prepositions, most common z = with 3) to indicate instrument used , instead of with=using
Dziewczynka je jabłko = A girl is eating an apple
Kasia to dziewczynka= Kasia is a girl
Kasia jest dziewczynką= Kasia is a girl
Asia idzie z dziewczynką do parku =Asia is walking to a park with a girl.
In case you also wondered what is the difference between dziewczyna and dziewczynka- dziewczynka is female child, dziewczyna is female teenager/young woman/girlfriend
Yes, the "k" in dziewczynka is diminutive from what I've been told.
About the examples...
You have one saying "Kasia to dziewczynka" meaning, very basically, "Kasia this girl" (if Google Translate is correct XD) which is nominative but then, You have the other saying "Kasia jest dziewczynką" meaning, again basically, "Kasia is girl" which you say is instrumental? But surely both examples are exactly the same? Or is it all to do with changing "to" to "jest"?
Btw, you got nominative and instrumental the wrong way round in the first half I think (unless I've been told wrong XD)
"Kasia to dziewczynka " and" Kasia jest dziewczynką" mean exactly the same thing, using different grammar.
I don't see any mistake, but just to be sure-
dziewczynkA=nominative(1)=subject of the sentence and after "to"
dziewczynkĄ=instrumental(5)= after jest, after some prepositions, "using"
This is actually not a form of the letter t, but of the letter "l" (lowercase L). First, install the Polish keyboard. Then you can type it by:
On a phone: by holding the letter L, until the menu will pop up with the alternative letter.
On Windows using the Polish programmer layout: by pressing Right Alt and L at the same time.
Age. There is no clear age border (I'd put it somewhere between 8 and 13), but "dziewczynka" is a younger girl and "dziewczyna" is an older one, up to a young adult.
If it's "someone's dziewczyna", then it also means "girlfriend".
Exactly the same happens with "boy": "chłopiec" is a younger one and "chłopak" is older, "chłopak" can also be "boyfriend".
This is an exception to normal pronunciation rules. When you see the "błk" cluster (which occurs in the word "jabłko" and some derivatives like "jabłkowy"), you pronounce it as "pk" instead. So "jabłko" is pronounced "japko".
However, the "błe" cluster is pronounced normally, even in apple-related words (like in "jabłek" or "jabłeczny").