That's why articles and such are called determiners in French. It's du pain but une pomme or la pomme. The article will help you distinguish between the two.
Of course, there are times in conversation when you refer to a particular bread such as the bread on the shelf in which case you might refer to it as le pain. In that case both parties understand which bread is being referred to.
Hopefully they will both speak with more clarity than the Duo robot and it won't be an issue.
In everyday English, English speakers don't say that (unless they are dog breeders) nor do they say "female dog". They just say "dog". The French are much more discriminating between the genders. A quick look at Reverso will show that about 88% of in-context use of "chienne" is vulgar. It's just a fact, not a judgement.
You're right, of course, and I should have made it clear that 'bitch' is rarely used in every day conversation. I was just pointing out that 'bitch' is actually a legitimate word since the commenter above seemed unaware of that, judging by the 'hahahaha' at the end of their comment.