"My dog died yesterday."
Translation:Вчера умерла моя собака.
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Your word order is fine but with different emphasis.
"Вчера умерла моя собака.": the emphasis is on the dog's death:
"What happened???" - "My dog died yesterday."
"Моя собака вчера умерла.": you emphasize that you had a dog and the dog died yesterday:
"How is your dog?" - "He died yesterday."
There is also
- "Моя собака умерла вчера.": the emphasis is on the date of death:
"When did your dog die?" - "He died yesterday."
No. собака is the general term for a dog which could either be male or female. The term itself is feminine just because words have to have a gender. There are other words for dog if you want to specify the gender, although some of them are also curse words (surprisingly the same as in English). so I'll leave that as an exercise for you to look them up.
Likewise, even if the dog happens to be a male, if you use собака you still have to match the gender of the word (rather than the gender of the dog) for умерла.