"I walk and think."
Translation:Я хожу и думаю.
The language is redundant. Often the same meaning is expressed by several words. For example, having one negation is enough to understand the sentence, but still, Russian forces you to use double negatives. Adjective endings are not really neccessary either: when taking notes, we frequently write «красив. цветы» instead of «красивые цветы», and it's perfectly understandable because noun ending gives all information about the case and the number. Still, Russian forces you to use endings for both nouns and adjectives.
We don't choose what to use according to redundancy. We choose what to use according to the grammar of the language.
Just like Russian requires you to be redundant with the negations, it also requires you to be redundant with the pronouns (at least in writing and formal speech). The fact that other interpretations are excluded is not important.
It's different with Latin because Latin grammar is different. In Latin, not using the pronoun is the default option (ambulō cōgitōque 'I walk and think'), while using it adds additional meaning: it emphasises the subject (egō ambulō cōgitōque 'it's me who walks and thinks'). In Russian, on the other hand, using the pronoun is the default option (я хожу и думаю 'I walk and think'), while dropping it adds additional additional meaning: it makes the sentence sound colloquial.
Probably. This sentence does sound natural without a pronoun, at least to my ear. It's not the kind of sentence to be used in formal language anyway.
Хожу́ means you're walking back and forth, иду́ would mean you're walking to some place.
Ok, thanks! When I looked up these words, I found a page that told me that they were both imperfective, but ходеть is imperfective (indefinite) and that идти is imperfective (definite), with пойте being the perfective aspect. I know this stuff will come up in the future on here with aspects (I currently don't really know what it all means) but at least I've heard of imperfective and perfective aspect. What I didn't know anything about was that they could get broken down even more.
Russian verbs (especially verbs of motion, like these) come in a lot of flavors, usually by adding prefixes to a root verb that ultimately serve the same purpose as "phrasal verbs" in English (like how look for, look at, look over, look into, look to, look around, look forward to, look back, etc. are all used in different situations).