Polish tends to be pretty good about that. The endings for a masculine adjective is almost always -y, or -i when the stem ends in g or k, the ending for feminine adjectives is -a and the neuter ending is -e.
Then you just have to remember exceptions (I'm not aware of any for adjectives, but there are for nouns)
So, smaczna changed to smacnzy here. Is this just a feminine word with its respective instrumental ending? (changing from -a to -y)
No. It is not instrumental. It is nominative, but masculine (because obiad is masculine).
- If you put a noun after the verb być (to be), you use instrumental (with number of the subject). On jest psem, One są kotami…
- If you put an adjective after być, you use nominative (but in gender and number of the subject). Obiad jest smaczny, Kolacja jest smaczna…
When you want to put a noun described by an adjective, you do it, as if it was a usual noun: Obiad jest smacznym posiłkiem (lunch/dinner is a tasty meal), Burek jest dobrym psem (Burek is a good dog).
In Polish, like in Latin, Finnish, to some extent German and Esperanto, nouns decline. A noun is put in different cases depending on its role in a sentence. In English there is one case besides nominative – genitive, describing owner of possessed things (Tom’s hat – “Tom’s” is a genitive of “Tom”).
Nominative is the case for subjects – nouns that are doing an action described in a sentence (eg. kot śpi – a cat sleeps). Instrumental is a case for nouns that are being used as instruments (kroję nożem – I am cutting with a knife).
There is an accusative case describing direct object – the thing that an action is being done upon – eg. kot je psa and psa je kot both mean a cat eats a dog (and not a dog eats a cat), even though in Polish sentences the word order can be changed – because the roles of the nouns are described by their cases.
But in Polish some cases can have different idiomatic roles – here, after the verb to be, instrumental is used in copular statement, to describe equality between subject and the thing the subject is.
Thank you. Very well said and informative!
However, I disagree with one minor detail: I think English has at least three cases. The third seems to be an 'object' case that is a combination of the accusative (direct object), dative (indirect object), and ablative (object of preposition) cases. This third case is usually the same as the nominative form, but it's sometimes different. For example, "I" becomes "me", and "they" becomes "them":
I throw the ball. He gives me the ball.
They have pizza. He helps them.
He sings well. I work with him.
I don't know if this third case has a name--I'm just analyzing English as a native speaker of it.
It is called objective case, though usually this type of dative-accusative merged case is called oblique, but English grammarians like to have things different than anybody else. ;)
Still, objective is only marked on pronouns in English, so how much it really is a case differs from an analysis to an analysis of English grammar – some people don't consider English to have any case system, as even the Saxon genitive can be analysed as a clitic instead…
Smaczny is an adjective, not a noun. Adjectives change to match the gender of their noun, as well as to match their case. So smaczny obiad, but smaczna ryba and smaczne mleko. These are all in nominative case, mind.
Does "smaczny" come from the same root word as the Swedish word "Småkigt", which also means "tasty"?
Probably, because "taste, flavour" itself is "smak", and I see this is the same in Swedish.
It's "smaklig(-t)", not "småkig(-t)". "Småkig" sounds like a mix of "smaklig" and "tråkig" (boring) to my ears. It's not a bad word for describing bland and tasteless food, but I've never heard it or used it myself (until now at least) ;)
Btw, "tasty" is generally expressed as "god/gott", (Tasty food = God mat; This one is really tasty = Den här smakar jättegott). The saying "Smaklig måltid!" (Have a nice meal!) is the most usual environment for the word "smaklig".
there is explanation for this in tips and notes. I think most learners on Duolingo claim that "lunch" is a better translation.
In Poland "Obiad" is a big meal ( traditionally two or three courses) eaten around 1pm-4pm.
In English, "dinner" is the main meal of the day. For some English speakers that will be around midday, for others in the evening. This is a feature of English that it causing issues in all courses.
This can of worms! Obiad is a bigger meal? My family have always used dinner for the big meal and then lunch for a smaller midday meal and tea (low) for a smaller meal in the evening (lets not even get into high tea!). As i grew up i realised that there are regions where every possible variation is used. Mostly dinner is the bigger meal, so I'll use obiad for dinner!
We just returned from a tour of Southern Poland, the Galician region. English, which is rapidly becoming the international language, is used on many signs u der Polish. Our guide told us that obiad is rapidly being called "lunch".
It is no big deal, but where I'm from we say delicious more than tasty. Scrumptious is super delicious, like smacny!!!
Thanks! I am going there soon, hope I can use that word when eating. Pierogi jest pyszny!
In England, dinner is sometimes used when it is mid afteroon. 12-2. In america, dinner is the evening meal. 5-7oclock. But english people sometimes use this aswell now. Dinner in england can be interchangeable for either meals
Why is "jest" used here? What I mean is, is it because "Obiad" is a non animated noun so the pronoun for "Obiad" would be "It" and so you say "It is" which is "Ono jest" and just remove "Ono"? I guess I'm simply reading too much into this but it is interesting to learn about this.
"Jest" is the third person singular form of być (to be). It literally means "is". So its use has nothing to do with non-animated or animated, and regardless of the gender of 'it' (on/ona/ono) you would still use jest.
Actually obiad is dinner, kolacja is supper. My wife is from Poland and says its wrong.
Is obiad dinner or lunch?!?! I assume it is a culture difference since both are accepted and kolacja seems to not really be a "meal" more of a snack? Not sure
If we assume that there are three 'main meals': one in the morning, one in the afternoon (early or later) and one in the evening (or late afternoon), then they are "śniadanie - obiad - kolacja" in Polish.
And then there is a problem, since different cultures refer to those differently. Therefore "obiad" will accept both "lunch" and "dinner", while "kolacja" will accept both "dinner" and "supper".
The translation seems to be "tasty tea". Adjective, noun. Different from noun + verb be + adjective. The tea is tasty.
"Tasty tea" (noun modified by an adjective) would be "Smaczny obiad", but "Obiad jest smaczny" has the stative to be verb "jest" (present 3rd person of być)
"If we assume that there are three 'main meals': one in the morning, one in the afternoon (early or later) and one in the evening (or late afternoon), then they are "śniadanie - obiad - kolacja" in Polish.
And then there is a problem, since different cultures refer to those differently. Therefore "obiad" will accept both "lunch" and "dinner", while "kolacja" will accept both "dinner" and "supper"."
Why is it smaczny and not smaczne? Is it because I didn't identity the number and gender of obiad correctly? I think tasty has to be nominative because it comes after być and it is describing obiad (making it an adjective)
Yes, it's Nominative, true. But "obiad" is masculine, so the form of the adjective has to match.
For example "śniadanie" (breakfast) is neuter, so it's "smaczne".
hallo please i am learning polish from english but i am italian so be patint with me. i do not understand why "Obiad jest smaczny" and not - Obiad jest smaczne". can you please explane shift from smaczne to smaczny ? thks
A quick look into Italian adjectives tells me that Italian also has gendered adjectives (il gioco nuovo vs la casa nuova). So a Polish equivalent of "nuovo" is "nowy" and of "nuova" is "nowa".
So, "obiad" is masculine, so the right form is "smaczny". "śniadanie" (breakfast) is neuter, so the right form is "smaczne". "kolacja" (dinner/supper) is feminine, so it's "smaczna".
So far on the lessons, most words tended to blend into one another. Now, "jest smaczny" sounded clearly like 2 separate words. I thought it would sound more like "jes smaczny", but that must be my Americanism coming out.
She seems to pronounce 'smaczna/e/y' all the same, is there any difference?
Yes, they are all pronounced differently. The end of smaczna is pronounced like the a in father, the end of smaczne is pronounced like the e in end, and the end of smaczny is pronounced like the i in pick.
Depending on the dialect that you are more familiar with, the three main meals of the day are either "breakfast/lunch/dinner" or "breakfast/dinner/supper". So 'obiad' can be either 'lunch' or 'dinner'. And 'dinner' can be either 'obiad' or 'kolacja'.
In the northern part of England (where I come from) dinner is normally eaten (at home) at lunch time (note the irony! - but they may say dinner time), whereas in the south dinner is eaten in the evening. However if you said you were "going out to dinner" that would tend to imply the evening (in the north also). However "school dinners" are clearly lunches everywhere in the UK.