I read a little about how asking for a cup of tea is one of the old-fashioned phrases still in use, and I am wondering which other ones people use, and which things used to be popularly said that changed a lot in the twentieth century. Has У меня есть changed? has the pronunciation of 'е' changed? Большое спасибо дорогое товарищи!
Большое спасибо дорогое товарищи! (c)
for example this one is totally obsolete ;)
It comes to a time period which you are considering. We've had a writing reform for about 100 years and since that the whole alphabet and some spelling rules have changed. And concerning the lexic... well, since the Soviet time is over, there are also words which existed then and hardly exist now, like some nomenclature posts or plenty of abbreviations. But the language is still the language and all the basic structures are still there, and we are still able to read Pushkin only with a rare glance to the dictionary ;)
The whole alphabet? Has changed? You may want to choose your words more carefully.
And, certainly, the word товарищ isn't obsolete per se.
Plenty of abbreviations hardly exist just because objects they refer to hardly exist now. Not because the language has changed. If one would want to speak about ГОЭЛРО or Торгсин he would still have to fall back to those words.
On the other hand, certain speech templates (for lack of a better word) has changed. We don't say "милостивый государь, не соблаговолите ли вы", we say something completely else instead, for the same meaning, same notion, same concept. I didn't quite understand what the OP meant in his post, but somehow I believe he meant exactly that.
Oh, I see. You're confusing the alphabet used now for церковно-славянский and normal Russian alphabet.
"В Письмовнике Курганова (СПб., 1793 год) говорится, что: по повелению императрицы Екатерины II при учреждении народных училищ в изданном «Российском букваре» 1788 года для «легчайшего изречения» показаны следующие названия букв: а, бе, ве, ге, де, е, же, зе, и, и, ка, эль, эм, эн, о, пе, ер, эс, те, у, эф, ха, це, че, ша, ща, эр, ы, ерь, е, ю, я, фе (буквы ер и эр так названы в тексте (перепутаны в источнике). Из текста Письмовника видно, что названия букв, оканчивающихся на е, произносились мягко, поскольку о знаке, поставленном вместо избегаемой э, особо говорится, что он произносится, как немецкое или латинское e, — значит, русское е (де, зе, те…) произносится как русское е, то есть мягко."
1788 is hardly a "hundred years ago".
"В 1880-х в своем словаре Даль приводит названия а, бе, ве…; об аз, буки, веди… он рассказывает уже как о старинных буквах."
It was way earlier than the writing reform you talk about.
The writing reform had nothing to do with the names of the letters: http://stcreserv.narod.ru/Tutorial/decret18.html
Three letter were thrown out. But that's about all that happened to the alphabet.
And yes, Church Slavonic still utilizes the numerical meaning of Cyrillic letters.
Initially , languages were spoken.^_^
Some Slavic languages used Glagolitic alphabet. Others had no writing at that point. For example, by the time literacy spread into the territory of modern Ukraine and central Russia, Cyrillic was an established scipt (it had been created shortly after the Glagolitic one). It is safe to say that for languages spoken in these territories there was no period when glagolitsa was the only or even the primary script.
My university library happened to have some old Russian-for-English-speakers teaching books, which can maybe give a small idea. One is "Brush up your Russian" from the 30s, and the Berlitz Self-Teacher for Russian was written in the early 50s. Lots of standard phrases seem to have not changed much, although some examples I noticed (native speakers can correct me, of course):
"Барышня" was once more popular for usage than "девушка", now, it seems.
The borrowed words are slightly different in some cases (aerodrome seems to have been used all the time rather than aeroport.).
Terms like "нежели" are sometimes used instead of "чем" (коли instead of если is another example).
But these are just examples I noticed from multiple uses in those old books for learners that differ from books from the 70s up until now. If wiktionary is to be believed, this can give you a list of now-dated terms, and you can explore further from there. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Category:Russian_dated_terms