https://www.duolingo.com/CliffJonesJr

95 Core Concepts in Polish

What are the most basic, elementary, core concepts that virtually all languages express? Many linguists have put a great deal of effort into answering this question, and several short word lists have come out of it. The most famous are probably the Swadesh lists, based mostly on intuition and refined over time. Later lists like the Leipzig-Jakarta have used more stringent methods to determine which vocabulary items are most resistant to borrowing and change over time.

What I've done here is taken five such word lists (Swadesh 100, Ranked Swadesh 40, Swadesh-Yakhontov, Leipzig-Jakarta, and Woodward) and kept only the items that occur in at least two of the lists. Here is the Polish version. Enjoy!

Nouns:
1) name = nazwa, imię
2) water = woda
3) blood = krew
4) fire = ogień
5) stone/rock = kamień, skała
6) dog = pies
7) fish = ryba
8) louse/flea = wesz, pchła
9) hand/arm = dłoń, ręka
10) eye = oko
11) ear = ucho
12) nose = nos
13) tongue = język
14) tooth = ząb
15) bone = kość
16) horn = róg
17) tail = ogon
18) egg = jajko
19) leaf = liść
20) night/evening = noc, wieczór
21) star = gwiazda
22) sun = słońce
23) moon = księżyc
24) earth/soil = ziemia, gleba
25) salt = sól
26) mountain = góra
27) tree = drzewo
28) rain = deszcz
29) wind = wiatr
30) bird = ptak
31) flesh/meat = mięso
32) liver = wątroba
33) skin/hide = skóra
34) knee = kolano
35) breast/chest = pierś
36) person/human = osoba, człowiek
37) man = mężczyzna
38) woman = kobieta
39) child = dziecko
40) hair/fur = włos, futro
41) mouth = usta
42) neck = szyja
43) foot/leg = stopa, noga
44) feather = pióro
45) grease/fat = olej, tłuszcz
46) smoke = dym
47) ash/soot = popiół, sadza
48) sand = piasek
49) wood = las, drewno
50) root = korzeń
51) rope/cord = sznur, lina
52) path/road = ścieżka, droga
53) year = rok

Verbs:
54) die = umierać
55) see/look/watch = zobaczyć, widzieć, patrzeć, oglądać
56) hear/listen = słyszeć, słuchać
57) know = wiedzieć, znać
58) drink = pić
59) give = dać
60) come = przyjść
61) stand = stać
62) sit/set = siedzieć, kłaść
63) lie/lay = leżeć, układać
64) fly = lecieć
65) eat = jeść
66) bite = gryźć
67) burn = palić
68) kill = zabijać
69) say/tell/speak/talk = mówić, powiedzieć, rozmawiać
70) laugh = śmiać się

Adjectives:
71) new = nowy
72) full = pełny
73) good = dobry
74) long = długi
75) red = czerwony
76) black = czarny
77) white = biały
78) green = zielony
79) yellow = żółty
80) small/little = mały, trochę
81) big/large = duży
82) wide/broad = szeroki
83) heavy = ciężki
84) old = stary
85) dry = suchy

Other:
86) I/me = ja/mnie/mi/mną
87) you = ty/ciebie/cię/ci/tobie/tobą, wy/was/wam/wami
88) what/which = co, który/która/które
89) who/whom = kto/kogo
90) one = jeden
91) two = dwa
92) not/no = nie
93) this/these = ten/ta/to, ci/te
94) we/us = my/nas/nam/nami
95) all/everything/everyone = wszystko, wszyscy

Please let me know if you spot any mistakes here. And if you take this list and translate it into another language, that would be awesome! I'd be sure to give you some lingots! More versions can be found here. (Be sure to check what's been translated already before posting your own.) And if you like this kind of thing, check out my website for more!

Update: A second set of concepts is translated into Polish here!

December 14, 2015

5 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/Cruicead

24) earth/soil - earth is "ziemia", while soil is "gleba". I feel this should be included.

69) say/tell/speak/talk - also "rozmawiać" ("to talk")

Good job on the list, it's very good!

December 16, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/CliffJonesJr

Updated. Thanks!

December 16, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/br0d4
Mod
  • 1316

The point 90) one/a/an = jeden - it is not like that... "one" = "jeden", that is right. But indefinite articles "a" and "an" simply do not exist in Polish. There are many words that can serve their function if needed, but in most cases none of them is necessary.

December 15, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/vytah
  • 1327

English a (and indefinite articles in many other Indo-European languages) have the same etymology as cardinal number 1 in those languages. Both one and a come from Proto-Germanic ainaz, which is a cognate of Polish jeden.

Probably all the lists lump English one and a as one item, since it is also a single item in many other languages (German ein, French un, Hungarian egy etc.)

December 15, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/CliffJonesJr

I've gone back and forth on whether to include "a/an" for languages that don't really have an equivalent. I'm going to leave it in the master list but make item 90 just "one" here to avoid misleading people.

December 15, 2015
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