Eh, the links are not visible in the apps (or not clickable, at least) if they are under 'normal text', so to say, that's why at some point we start pasting whole URLs even though that looks ugly.
Well, the first link is Tips&Notes for "Adjectives 1" and you can simply open the course in a browser (because maybe your app has the button, maybe not), click on the skill and click the lightbulb icon.
The second link is here: https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/14133935
Every noun has a grammatical gender. Adjectives, pronouns, even some numerals have to agree with this gender. Generally, your first assumption (about singular nouns) may be that:
- those ending with a consonant are masculine
- those ending with -a are feminine
- those ending with -o or -e are neuter
But the list of exceptions is quite long, even with such basic words as "tata" (dad, masculine), "mężczyzna" (man, masculine) or "mysz" (mouse, feminine).
For more information, I would recommend reading immery's guide here: https://www.duolingo.com/comment/14133935
The concept of grammatical gender is quite simple :-)
To start, think of just THREE words you already know:
feminine (rodzaj żeński) - KOBIETA - woman
masculine (rodzaj męski) - CHŁOPIEC - boy
neuter (rodzaj nijaki) - DZIECKO - child
kobieta - woman (feminine noun representing a female)
matka - mother (feminine noun representing a female)
mama - mom (feminine noun representing a female)
dziewczynka - little girl (feminine noun representing a female)
książka - book (feminine noun, because it ends with an "a")
kanapka - sandwich (feminine noun, it ends with an "a")
zupa - soup (feminine noun, because it ends with an "a")
The nouns are called feminine, because they look alike ("a" at the
end) and follow the same grammatical rules typical for all of them.
chłopiec - boy (masculine noun referring to a male)
uczeń - student (masculine noun representing a male)
obiad - dinner (masculine noun, it ends with the consonant)
pies - dog (masculine noun, ends with the consonant)
kot - cat (masculine noun, ends with the consonant)
You can infer that nouns are called masculine, because they
look alike (the consonant at the end) and follow the same rules.
dziecko - child (neuter noun, with an "o" at the end)
jabłko - apple (an "o" at the end)
drzewo - tree ( an "o" again...)
śniadanie - breakfast (neuter noun ending with an "e")
The nouns are called neuter when they end with "o'",
or "e" and follow the same common rules.
And so on... one noun at a time...
Polish is very much like English: as soon as you learn
about all the rules, they tell you about exceptions...
I'm still confused with the verb byc. I thought earlier we were told that byc takes the instrumental case (or with nouns you can use 'to' plus nominative). Am I now correct in thinking that maybe the rule of 'byc plus instrumental case' only applies to nouns, and that the adjective stays in its accusative case? Thanks.
Well, you're thinking in the right direction, but that's not exactly right.
"być" takes Instrumental not just for nouns, but for noun phrases. So for example "a tasty meal" will need Instrumental for the whole phrase: Zupa jest smacznym posiłkiem.
And if it's just an adjective, it stays, but not in Accusative - the basic form is Nominative. "Zupa jest smaczna" uses Nominative "smaczna". Accusative feminine adjective would be "smaczną".
For more information, you can check out this topic: https://www.duolingo.com/comment/16373167 If it's too much now (and it is much), just focus on parts 1 and 3 :)