I think that cannot be, friend Daughter of Albion, because in American (more precisely, U.S.A.) English, the term “physician” encompasses practitioners of ALL of the medical specialties, including but not limited to, orthopedics, psychiatry, ophthalmology, neurology, urology, gynecology, etc. (M.D.s) Is that not the case in Albion? I’ve heard it said that British surgeons use the title “Mister” rather than “Doctor.” Is that true? As a point of interest, in the U.S.A. we also have a category of medical practitioner called an osteopath. (D.O.s, and not to be confused with O.D.s, optometrists, who measure eyes for glasses.) While osteopathy began in the nineteenth century, as a sort of alternative form of therapy, specializing in the manipulation of joints and bones, it has evolved here, until now such practitioners’ schooling is identical to the traditional contemporary medical school (with, perhaps, a bit more emphasis on the therapeutic benefits of deep massage; admittedly, just rank speculation on my part) And osteopaths in this country take the same qualifying exams as M.D.s and are entitled to practice in all areas of medicine, and are called physicians, as well.
Well, here a medical degree is a double first degree (M.B.B.Ch. or M.B.B.S.) so our medical doctors are only honorary doctors. M.D. is a rare qualification, only taken by those who go into research. Upon graduation, they perform "residency" as junior doctors, 6 months being spent in surgery, and 6 in general medicine. During this period they are called "Dr. X". At the end of this year they choose their specialty to train in - and those who go into surgery become "Mr. (or Ms.) X" once they have qualified for membership of the Royal College of Surgeons, which is a necessary step towards becoming a consultant surgeon.
Although, strictly speaking, any medical doctor who is not a surgeon is a physician, in practice we do not use the term as often as you seem to do in America (as far as I can tell from medical TV dramas). We would never refer to the "family physician" - it sounds quaint and antiquated. The first port of call is the G.P. (the "general practitioner"), who makes referrals to specialists as necessary.
Hospital doctors are generally described by their specialty, which is identified by which Royal College they are a member of (or are preparing to qualify for). The term physician is used for those who have (or seek) Membership of the Royal College of Physicians. Hence it is not generally used to refer to psychiatrists, radiologists, anaesthetists, pathologists, paediatricians, obstetricians, gynaecologists, and G.P.s, who all have their own Colleges.
And here osteopaths are not doctors; a qualified osteopath is not qualified to act as a physician (unless they also hold a medical degree and qualified in medicine seperately). However, double qualification does occur. Since our medical degrees are 5 years long, and first degrees, a significant number of medical students take an intercalated degree - they take an additional year between the pre-clinical and clinical stages of their medical degree, to achieve a B.Sc. degree in a related subject (eg. history of medicine, or genetics). Likewise, some doctors take the accelerated courses to additionally qualify as osteopaths. Accupuncture is treated in the same way; it is not part of medical training and has its own accreditation system, but some doctors choose to dual qualify.
And it is because the US and UK systems are so different, both in how to qualify and in the terminology used, that I suspect the Russian situation may be different again, with no easy word for word correspondences.
N.B. I have described the situation in Albion; Hibernia is somewhat different.