Yes, indeed. I cling to the hope that the Portuguese sentences are more natural than their English versions. Heaven help us if they aren't. It's tedious to have to report every error every time, but it's the only way to avoid Brazilian students learning very clumpy English.
well, the portuguese sentences seem natural to me. (except the ones which are grammatically correct because we don't really use lhes, os, as (clitics) and some other things in real life, but at least they are according the grammar, right? LOL) I mean they're natural, just not colloquially natural sometimes.
That is reassuring, thank you. Many of us English speakers have access to Portuguese-Portuguese dictionaries and grammars, where the clitics are presented as normal and are used in Portuguese newspapers regularly. It has taken me a while to locate specifically Brazilian material, though quite a number of the translations (many from Agência Brasil) do have personal infinitives and clitic pronouns, but seem to use very few of the available tenses. By the way I would say "except the ones which are grammatically correct". Thanks again -I think I posted my comment about six months ago!
I don't think that's what @honrubcor meant. It seems like it's ambiguous from the statement... because we could be saying that "She doesn't know whether [other person] comes or goes." Based on the conjugation of the verbs it seems ambiguous.
Could that be the case here? In the statement above, does "vem ou vai" HAVE to refer to the same "she" at the beginning of the sentence, or could it be about someone else? Also, if it was about someone else, would we be forced to clarify using another personal pronoun for "vem ou vai"?
It refers to her exactly because there's no pronoun in "vem ou vai", if she didn't know whether another person is coming or going, then we'd use another pronoun (ele, você, a gente)... Ela não sabe se você vem ou vai. Ela não sabe se ele vem ou vai. Ela não sabe se a gente vem ou vai. If there's no specification in the second part, so it has to be just about herself.
I think unless a change of subject is specified or made clear from the context, you have to assume it's the same subject. Unless it says "Ela não sabe se ele vem ou vai" or "Ela não sabe se você vem ou vai" or something, it's safe to assume that "Ela" is the subject for all three verbs.
Because, in English, verbs in the indicative mood always have a subject, noun or pronoun. After all, there is only one person (3rd singular) in the present tense which has a different form, none in the simple past, nor in auxillary verbs like can, may, ought and must. The 3rd person singular itself is multivalent ; it can be he, she or it, so a subject just has to be there also. Even when the 2nd singular had a special ending (and pronoun), for instance "thou comest, thou sittest, thou dost etc" (You will still find these in many Bibles and church services), even then leaving out the subject was just too confusing, unlike Portuguese where you do it all the time, and only in subordinate clauses do you need to mark out when there is a change of subject.