"Thank you, bye!"
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I would say that "pa" is more infantile/caressing/warm (I am not these are the best adjectives to describe it). Therefore you would typically use it when talking to someone with whom you have a closer relationship (closer friends, family; I don't think it is used predominantly by women). Another example would be talking to children or even babies: "pa pa!". "Cześć" is definitely more universal (although still informal, e.g. you wouldn't use "cześć" with a vendor in a grocery store -- you would say "do widzenia").
Note also that "cześć" can be used at the beginning ("hi/hello") and the end ("bye") of a conversation; "pa" - only at the end.
There is no way to know how formal the context is from just one simple sentence. In English speaking countries, you can say "bye" when leaving a shop or to a teacher at school. Those are exactly the situations, where you would use "do widzenia" in Poland. There is no reason not to accept it.
I see your point and for the first time in forever, your comment made me discuss the translations of 'the goodbye words' with my team. And while they agree that "bye" could even be used in a shop or to a teacher, we still think that it's safer to keep the distinction, because people already have enough trouble distinguishing between formal and informal phrases in Polish. Accepting "bye" both for a completely informal and childish "pa" and for a formal "do widzenia" would only add to the confusion...