For those like me who (live under a rock and) didn't know the original meme:
На русский дословно переводится, как "ли" (частица). То есть данное предложение можно перевести на русский, как "Является ли яйцо овощем?"
The use of "to" seems very flexible. In the end, this sentence looks like nonsense to me, but I just used my understanding of context or implied verbs to intuit it was an "is" question. Kind of like how Japanese leaves out so many words. Can anyone give me a guideline for implied / unspoken words or verbs?
the most important implied words:
pronouns (as subjects)
jest/są (only after "to")
possesive pronouns when they are obvious "I love my mom"=(ja) kocham (moją) mamę.
czy is a yes/no question word, but can be omitted.
Things that just don't exist, work differently in Polish:
articles don't exist.
some prepositions are often replaced with cases (of=genitive; with(using)=instrumental; to=dative)
some prepositions (mostly in English phrasal verbs) are replaced by different verbs,
That's all I recall. /disclaimer all I know comes from being Polish, I am not a linguist or a Polish teacher/
I should first apologize, because soon after posting, I realized there was probably a Tips & Notes about "to..." and there was. However, I'm still glad I asked, because you just added in some useful extra information.
The correct form would be "Czy jajko jest warzywem?". Both sentences have the same meaning.
"Jajko jest warzywo?" is grammatically incorrect. Although you could omit the conjunction "Czy", but still you should use a different case. (Instrumental instead nominative). The question "Czy jajko jest warzywem?" is correct.
To clarify. "Czy jajko to (jest) warzywo?" suggested as a correct translation in my opinion is not 100% correct. In such questions, where you compare things, I'd use instrumental instead nominative. Of course if you asked "Czy to jest jajko?" (Is this an egg?) nominative should be used.
Compare: "Czy to jest kot?" (Is this a cat?) and "Czy kot jest psem?" (Is a cat a dog?) "psem" is instrumental case. Noone will say "Czy kot jest pies? (nominative).
What I meant is that the sentence "Jajko jest warzywo?" is incorrect and it should be "Czy jajko jest warzywem?". And also that "Czy jajko to warzywo?" and "Czy jajko jest warzywem?" have the same meaning and I also think that the former sounds more natural. Sorry for confusion.
So is czy needed because Polish doesn't use tone to denote a question? I hear no tone difference through the sentence, so I guess what I'm asking is can I use a rising tone to denote a question and take out czy, or is it neccessary?
I'm afraid you can't trust the tone on Duolingo (at least Polish), the text-to-speech is really bad in terms of intonation.
"czy" is not necessary, it's just helpful. Intonation can easily be enough.
Like most languages Polish uses tone to denote a question. The voice you hear is not perfect.
You surely agree that you cannot take such as voice synthesis 100% as you hear it. IMHO there should be a rising tone at the end of the question. Polish is not different form English, German, Russian or Spanish in this field.
According to your question whether 'czy' is needed in questions...
You use this particle in general questions (the yes/no answer) but mostly you can omit it in informal speach without changing the meaning.
Czy podać Panu kawę? or Podać Ci kawę? although Podać Panu kawę? or Czy podać Ci kawę? are all correct.