"Czy ta szklanka jest do połowy pełna czy do połowy pusta?"
Translation:Is this glass half full or half empty?
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'czy' is used in questions, when you have an A/B (or more) choice.
'albo' and 'lub' sometimes can also be used in questions, but then it suggests that both A and B may be correct. And frankly, I think that sometimes we may accept them too easily, they are of course a possible interpretation, but sometimes too weird.
And here... well, I'd say that asking such a question, you really want your interlocutor to choose either A or B, not both.
I don't know if you are sarcastic, or genuinely asking? Yes that's the same thing described from different perspective.
I don't see how the two sentences are related. Your sentence says "half of the votes", so here "half" is a noun and is translated by a Polish noun. In the exercise "half (full") is an adverb. In order to translate this adverb by the Polish noun "polowa" the preposition "do" is used.
In your example, the word 'half' is a real noun. You could replace it with another noun, like 'the majority' and it would still be grammatical.
But you can't do this with our sentence because here 'half' is an adverb. "Do połowy" should thus be treated as an adverbial.
I think this only works with measurable quantities. If you wanted to say "I'm half Polish" you'd say "Jestem w połowie Polką". But "w połowie" also works with both "half full" and "half empty". So it's a bit more versatile.
In case you wanted to mention two halves (components) of something (half X, half Y), the most likely thing to say is "pół X, pół Y".
Then, there's also "na (w)pół" as in "na (w)pół otwarty" = "half-open", although "półotwarty", where 'pół' turns into a prefix, is more likely.
But many things just don't translate literally, like "half decent", in which case none of the aforementioned words apply.
Since you gave a Polish answer to a Polish sentence I assume you had a listening exercise. Here you have no room for interpretation; you must type what the speaker says.
It would be very kind if you could quote your full answer. I assume it was one of the following:
- Czy ta szklanka jest do połowy pełna jest do połowy pusta?
- Czy ta szklanka jest do połowy pełna czy jest do połowy pusta?
The first version is certainly not correct; it contains no equivalent for the English word “or.”
The second version might work (in a translation exercise from English!) if the English sentence contained a second “is” (“…or is it half empty”). But my Polish is not good, and it could be that this version sounds inelegant to a native speaker.
Btw, the word “do” is not related to “czy” nor to “jest;” it belongs to “do połowy” (literally “up to the half”).