Translation:The animals

December 16, 2015

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The paradigm for plurals was not given in this lesson so I’m a bit baffled here.


Sorry if this is not the right place to ask but, for which previous lessons are there paradigms? And where exactly?


I believe they mean the "Tips & Notes" section you see when you scroll down from the list of lessons in each section on the web version. This topic does not have any because the course contributors haven't gotten to it yet. I imagine they will eventually add these and we should see some basic rules for how plurals are formed.


There is a post about creating plurals in Polish: https://www.duolingo.com/comment/12354055




Maybe a dumb question, but to me it sounds like there is a "n" sound after the "ę". Is this correct? Is it wrong to say it without an n? Should I always pronounce an n between an ę and a consonant?


In this particular case it's indeed pronounced as 'en' (without nasality), but the pronunciation generally depends on what comes after it.

According to standard phonetics ę is pronounced as:

  • a nasal [ɛ̃] sound when followed by the letters ch, f, h, rz, s, sz, ś, w, z, ź or ż, as in:


  • an [ɛm] sound when followed by the letters b and p, as in:


  • an [ɛn] sound when followed by the letters c, cz, d, dz, dż or t, as in:


  • an [ɛɲ] sound when followed by the letters ć or dź, as in:


  • an [ɛŋ] sound when followed by the letters g or k, as in:


  • as a denasalised vowel [ɛ] before ł and l, as in:


The word-final pronunciation of 'ę' is a topic on its own:


Note, that the realisation of ę and ą might vary depending on the region. Also, there is the phenomenon of "careful pronunciation", when natives don't denasalise [ɛ̃] to [ɛ] in those previously mentioned examples. I personally regard such a pronunciation as hypercorrect (wrong), however, the other moderators on this course will probably tell you that it still sounds acceptable.


From my quick lookup on IPA, are these two examples below without nasality?

• an [ɛm] sound when followed by the letters b and p

• an [ɛn] sound when followed by the letters c, cz, d, dz, dż or t

And do these two below have nasality?

• an [ɛɲ] sound when followed by the letters ć or dź

• an [ɛŋ] sound when followed by the letters g or k


It's an [ɛ] in all four cases, so technically the vowel shouldn't have nasality. However, it might seem like you're pronouncing it a bit with your nose, as the sound that follows is a nasal consonant.



What is this ending again??? I love Polish language, but, what are these f**plural rules??? (smiley desesperated)


Wow dzięnkuję!!! It is a little bit clearer now!!! :)

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