Ą is like "ohm" or "own" but without pronouncing the final M or N.
C is like "ts"
Ć or ci is like English "ch".
Cz is also like English "ch" but harder, with the tip of the tongue curled back.
Ch is a hard "h" sound, similar to Spanish J or ge/gi
Ę is like "eh-oo" in one short syllable, but depending on the letter that follows it, sometimes sounds like "em," "en," or "eng." If it's the last letter in the word, then it's usually pronounced like a regular Polish E "eh."
J is like English Y in "yellow"
Ł is like English W.
Ń is a palatalized N where the flat top of the tongue touches the palate, instead of the tip of the tongue
Ó is pronounced like U in "uber"
Rz is like English "zh" but harder with the tongue curled back. Same sound as Polish "Ż".
Ś or si is like English "sh" in "shield"
Sz is also like English "sh" but harder with the tongue curled back.
W is like an English V
Y is like an English short I as in "bid"
Ź or zi is like English "zh" but a little softer with the flat top of the tongue approaching the back of the teeth without touching.
Ż is like English "zh" but harder with the tongue curled back. Same sound as Polish "rz".
Yes, the English ch, sh, zh fall in the middle between Polish palatalized and retroflex sounds, but the retroflex cz, sz, rz, ż, really don't exist in English. The tongue doesn't curl backwards in the English pronunciation, so in my experience, Polish palatal-alveolar ć, ś, ź are more natural to pronounce and closer to the English sound than the retroflex. Maybe it's regional, but the standard American pronunciation and the dialect one hears on TV in general, sound this way. I can think of an example, however, of the name Charles pronounced with a heavy New York accent. They say /czalz/ (English L), most people say closer to
/ćarlz/ (English R and L). I agree that it's more palatalized in Polish than English, but retroflex sounds further away from common American English
The audio in this example is wrong (according to language authorities). 'bł' on this case should be pronounced as 'p' (voiceless and not aspirated) or 'pwh' (i.e. labialized 'p' or 'p' followed by a voiceless labiovelar approximant). Pronouncing this word as it is written letter by letter is very common though.