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  5. "Jego urodziny są w grudniu."

"Jego urodziny w grudniu."

Translation:His birthday is in December.

December 17, 2015



Why is it "są" and not "jest"?


"urodziny" is plural.


Is urodziny usually only used in plural in this context?


Urodziny is always plural, like drzwi or spodnie.


Slavic languages have - apart from singular and plural - something called plurale tantum. Looks like plural but descibes a single thing. And logically doesn't have a singular form.


So why ‘jego’?


"Jego" means "his" – both in singular and plural.


Does one always put a vowel after w when pronouncing it slowly?


You always merge "w" with the next word, so it should be pronounced like "jego urodziny są wgrudniu".


Right, that I know. When one asks for the slow pronunciation, though, it is pronounced "wo." I'm just curious to know whether, if one were talking about the word alone (if one were talking about a dictionary entry, for instance), one would put a vowel after it.


In all of the languages I've encountered, when you spell a word letter by letter, consonants receive at least one vowel to make pronunciation possible.

When you ask the TTS to speak slowly, it reads the sentence slowly one word at a time. When it encounters a lone "w", it just spells it with an additional vowel that is not present in the whole sentence.

So yeah, when talking about "w" as an independent word, it is perfectly normal to add a vowel to it, but some people may try to pronounce it without it, which sounds more like "wy".


I certainly agree that happens when one is spelling, but my experience with Russian has been that when trying to speak very slowly and precisely, people just hold the consonant sound в (the cognate of the Polish word w). I just want to be able to recognize it when it is spoken slowly, so I do not confuse it with the we version that one gets before a consonant cluster.


Thanks. I imagine it is "wu" that I am hearing here.


You are right and TTS does it wrong by spelling "w" as "wu". In slow version you should hear the same sounds, but slower, so "w" should sound like "w", nothing else.


In real life, we would probably do what you described for Russian. On Duolingo… "W' spelled as an independent letter is "wu". But "w" before difficult clusters in a sentence is always "we". With some practice, you should have no trouble distinguishing the two.


I was afraid I wouldn't guess


What gender is "urodziny" ? Usually Wictionary says, but I couldn't find it there or in the Pons dictionary. It just says "noun, plural" .


It's non-masculine personal gender.

In Polish plural there are effectively only two genders, one for male people (or at least groups with at least one male person in it) and the other for everything else. And since "urodziny" is by its nature a plural-only word, we can't tell whether it would be masculine, feminine, or neuter in singular.


Thank you. Do you mean masculine non-personal ? Wouldn't we have to know the gender in order to know which form of the adjective to use with the noun ?
This makes me think of spodnie. Wictionary has it labeled as feminine plural, even though it doesn't have a singular form.
I see what you are saying, though, that in the plural there is only a difference between masculine non-personal and all other nouns. So this applies also to adjectives ?


No, it's not masculine non-personal. The two genders of plural are masculine personal and "everything else". Urodziny belongs to "everything else" (non-masculine personal). This "everything else" does not only consists of all the feminine and neuter nouns, but also many masculine nouns (even animate).

Yes, you have to know the gender of the word to match the adjective, and we know that gender is "non-masculine personal". That's all we need to know to use a word in plural. It doesn't matter whether the word is masculine, feminine or neuter, and without a singular form we have no way of knowing.

"Urodziny" and "spodnie" are both the same gender. If somebody, for simplicity, labeled "spodnie" as feminine plural, then one could do the same for urodziny.


The hints have 'are' rather than 'is' for są, so for standard English, the hints do not match the accepted answer. As a 'plurale tantum' (Thx MagicOfLA) the hints should note that; like the English noun 'moose' (for the large four-legged herbivore), which also has no singular form.


Yes, the hints do not match because generally "są" doesn't mean "is". But you have to know that "urodziny" are plural and "birthday" is singular.

The singular of "moose" is "moose". The singular of "urodziny" doesn't exist.


Sto lat, Jezus!


So, "his birthdays are" should be correct, right?


Haha, no it's not. In English, that would imply that he has more than one birthday within a month.

"His birthday is in November, but he usually celebrates his birthdays in December" would be something I'd accept, albeit reluctantly.

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