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95 Core Concepts in Yili

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What are the most basic, elementary, core concepts that virtually all languages express? Many linguists have put a great deal of effort into answering this question, and several short word lists have come out of it. The most famous are probably the Swadesh lists, based mostly on intuition and refined over time. Later lists like the Leipzig-Jakarta have used more stringent methods to determine which vocabulary items are most resistant to borrowing and change over time.

What I've done here is taken five such word lists (Swadesh 100, Ranked Swadesh 40, Swadesh-Yakhontov, Leipzig-Jakarta, and Woodward) and kept only the items that occur in at least two of the lists. Here is the Yili version.

Never heard of Yili? It's a dialect of the constructed language Alo, used in Adelaide in Ozghard. Compare to Yomba, Gowee, and Calda. You may not be interested in learning these languages per se, but if you're into conlanging, a list like this can come in handy!

Nouns:
1) name = thram
2) water = mas
3) blood = anam
4) fire = apath
5) stone/rock = apaman, athrola
6) dog = kàláma
7) fish = anaga
8) louse/flea = kànas
9) hand/arm = ina
10) eye = gin
11) ear = apazan
12) nose = apap
13) tongue = thrun
14) tooth = thran
15) bone = agalam
16) horn = thrùpála
17) tail = apela
18) egg = amethra
19) leaf = gàlas
20) night/evening = gàláma
21) star = sal, thràmath
22) sun = thàmath
23) moon = ilasa
24) earth/soil = apalathro
25) salt = màlása
26) mountain = salo
27) tree = gathra
28) rain = alos
29) wind = pusa
30) bird = gup
31) flesh/meat = amàthrála
32) liver = kamana
33) skin/hide = gala, galo
34) knee = amalak
35) breast/chest = thrana/thrane
36) person/human = ga, gu
37) man = gàsu
38) woman = gas
39) child = lana
40) hair/fur = thrygála
41) mouth = pas
42) neck = paz
43) foot/leg = alagal
44) feather = nuthra
45) grease/fat = amalapa
46) smoke = apana
47) ash/soot = asòmu
48) sand = apalathra
49) wood = githra
50) root = gakala
51) rope/cord = thrala
52) path/road = alasa
53) year = thrànas

Verbs:
54) die = mat
55) see/look/watch = alas, gan
56) hear/listen = thràmug
57) know = anògu, inag
58) drink = thrakas
59) give = ysáma
60) come = amopa
61) stand = kun
62) sit/set = nas
63) lie/lay = athranas
64) fly = gap
65) eat = apàkal
66) bite = nàthrak
67) burn = apath
68) kill = salaga
69) say/tell/speak/talk = akal, mula
70) laugh = athrasaka

Adjectives:
71) new = asanath
72) full = tàmam
73) good = atoma
74) long = apalak
75) red = apanàmu
76) black = kàsu
77) white = thruth
78) green = ilaka
79) yellow = azama
80) small/little = akata
81) big/large = aganal
82) wide/broad = apanala
83) heavy = izan
84) old = amoth, zima
85) dry = lapama

Other:
86) I/me = apa
87) you = apat/apàti
88) what/which = mu
89) who/whom = mug
90) one/a/an = apasat
91) two = thràti
92) not/no = lapa
93) this/these = aza, azas/azàsi
94) we/us = ape
95) all/everything/everyone = kal

Please let me know if you spot any mistakes here. And if you take this list and translate it into another language, that would be awesome! I'd be sure to give you some lingots! More versions can be found here. (Be sure to check what's been translated already before posting your own.) And if you like this kind of thing, check out my website for more!

2 years ago

5 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/rubatavolo
rubatavolo
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Why is this (and the previous three word lists) here in the Esperanto topic?

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/CliffJonesJr
CliffJonesJr
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I wasn't really sure where to put it, and I thought it might be of interest to conlangers. There is also a parallel list for Esperanto.

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/CliffJonesJr
CliffJonesJr
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OK, I see now. This is better suited to the root "Duolingo" topic. Moved.

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/CliffJonesJr
CliffJonesJr
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If you're interested in learning Yili, there is an Alo grammar guide and a Yili-English Dictionary available on Wattpad (free, of course).

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/CliffJonesJr
CliffJonesJr
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Can anybody identify the natural language this is based on? I'll pay five lingots a guess! (Once per user.)

2 years ago