To be precise it actually means ‘to go by foot, doing a walk’. It means that you go with intention to reach to some target and you do it by walking. In that sense it means ‘to walk’. Idę do domu ‘I am going (walking) home’, idziemy w góry ‘we are going to (walk, hike in) the mountains’.
On the other hand, it does not mean ‘to wander’, ‘to walk around’, or ‘to walk habitually’, for that there is another verb – chodzić. Chodzę wokół swojego domu ‘I walk around my house’, lubię chodzić po górach ‘I like to walk/hike in the mountains’.
No. Verbs of Motion actually do show the difference between Present Simple and Present Continous. So "Do you go to school?" would be "Czy ty chodzisz do szkoły?"
Actually, school messes up a bit with this distinction, because apparently "Are you going to school?" can be understood as "Do you go to school? (Are you a pupil?)" as well and thus translated as "chodzisz". But generally, it translates like this:
to go (on foot), to walk = chodzić
to be going (on foot), to be walking = iść
to be walking (without purpose/direction, just walking around) = chodzić
Thank you - and yes, "Are you going to school" can mean "Do you go to school" in English - so this is what confuses me. I can never remember which english phrase to choose when translating from Polish to English (and sometimes the other way for the same reason). :) Hopefully one of these tips will help it stick in my brain better.
Like Jellei said, in this context, 'idziedz' refers to the present continuous, as in 'you are going to school (at this present moment)', and 'chodzisz' refers to the habitual, as in 'you go to school (in general)/you are a student at a school'. I believe 'chodzić' has the same habitual meaning referring to other things that somebody regularly goes to, such as work, church, the shops, etc.
The sentence "Do you go to school?" asks about school attendance which
is, by nature, repetitive (just like the verb "chodzić"):
Chodzisz do szkoły? - Do you go to/attend school/Are you going to school?
The verb "idziesz" implies a single activity, one event or intention of getting
to school (now, as we speak, or in the future, on foot or any other means):
Czy (teraz) idziesz do szkoły? - Are you going/(on the way) to school (now?)
Czy ty (teraz) idziesz do szkoły (pieszo)? - Are you walking to school (now)? Czy ty idziesz (dzisiaj) do szkoły? - Are you going to school (today)? (intent) Czy (za rok) idziesz do szkoły? - (future) Are you going to school (in a year)?
Normally I'd say that "idziesz" happens 'right now' and therefore it can only be translated to Present Continuous. But with the school context, there is some idiomatic usage (which frankly I never understood, I just believe the native speaker who helps us) that allows "do you go". So added here. But I don't recommend using it anyway, it will only be in sentences about school.
Native English speakers use very naturally progressive aspect of the verb in reference to any "ongoing process", not only process of going to school. It means that the application of the Present Continuous is not limited to the present, "as we speak moment", only.