"These men like apples."
Translation:Ci mężczyźni lubią jabłka.
Are there big differences between the pronunciation of ci and czy?
I am familiar with the differences between the vocalic sounds, but not with the c/cz.
The letter c before i is pronounced like the letter ć. The sounds of ć and cz are indeed a bit similar, they both sound like a ch-sound, but ć is soft (the tongue is positioned as if you were saying the y in yes) whereas cz is retroflex (the tongue is positioned more or less as in the English r)
The ć sound historically developed in most cases from a soft t' (ть) how it is still present in Russian, Ukrainian or Czech, however without ever becoming a full cz. To me ć is therefore a sound between cz and t'. When I pronounce cz my lips move slightly forward and form a circle. While pronouncing ć they almost retain their normal position.
does the -ią indicate masculine plural adjectives? or masculine plural personal adjectives? or something else? And is jabłka in the accusative plural or is there no difference between the accusative and normative plural?
In this sentence lubią is the third person plural present form of lubić, which obviously is a verb. In the present tense Polish verbs are not inflected for gender and don't distinguish between the personal and non-personal category. So it would also be: 'te kobiety lubią jabłka' and or 'te psy lubią jabłka'.
Yes, the nominative form of the noun jabłko is identical to the accusative, in both singular and plural. In this sentence jabłko is plural/accusative.
I suddenly feel really silly for asking this, it seems obvious now. My brain must have been very tired yesterday. Thank you!
Wrong case. "lubić" (to like) takes Accusative, "jabłek" is Genitive.
If this sentence was negated, it would be "Ci mężczyźni nie lubią jabłek", as negated Accusative changes into Genitive (be careful not to transfer this rule to other cases, other cases stay as they were).
You use "ci" when "these" refers to 'a group with at least one man'. "These men" clearly have at least one man.
You use "te" when there is no human male in the word that "these" refers to. So women, dogs, trees, houses, cars...
There are two plurals in Polish: "masculine personal" (ci) and "other" (te). Men are obviously masculine personal.