Do "jego" and "jej" decline like the rest of the possessives? i.e. Should this/Would this ever be "Czy to jega ryba?"?
I hate seeing honest questions downgraded. I mean, who does that?? And why? There seems to be a lot of that in this Polish module for some reason. I upgraded your question so it wouldn't be negative. :-)
I like your name. You sound like an Italian gangster. And please, I love and cherish Italians and do not think the vast majority of Italians are gangsters. It is just a genre movie goers love for probably terrible reasons but, please, forgive me. Mea culpa!
It would be of great help to me if the "revealed" translation available when you click on the word was not just a simple meaning ("fish" of "it") but also told us what case it was. This little bit of extra information would help in figuring out the rules since there are no lists in Duolingo of these forms.
Unfortunately Duo wants us not to put grammar notes in the hints, because they appear as words as puzzles (so you would get "Nominative" as a puzzle in the application). I hope they will finally fix it so we could provide those notes.
They are provided in some places, still, although they technically shouldn't.
Anyway, "ryba" is singular and Nominative.
Tanks for responding, Jellei. I'm afraid I do not understand or agree with their reasoning as it would seem the goal would be to help us learn the language (and a difficult laguage it is too, at least for me) as best we can.
Actually, those are two forms of the same word. „Jego” is the accentuated form that you can put at the start of the sentence. Otherwise „go” is more common.
You are correct that "jego" is a possessive adjective meaning "his" (as it is used in this sentence). But also, "jego"/"go" are two forms of the same personal pronoun, which is both genitive and accusative for "on" ("him").
Literally this means "the fish of him" and jego is the genitive form of 3PS masc. PRONOUN not POSSESSIVE
The usage here is different from "moja, twoje, nasz, wasze" etc.
....As far as I can work out from other sources
what do you mean? It is a normal polish possessive pronoun. it means his. It also has the same form as one of three genitive forms of "on"- jego/go/niego . And it does not change with declination.
genitive forms of nouns follow nouns they describe, possessive pronouns precede nouns they describe.
If "jego" were a true possessive surely it would decline by gender, as NJG88 asked above?
It doesn't: "jego pies, jego kobieta i jego dziecko w domu"
Also by case, But it doesn't:
Kocha jego kobietę. Nie kocham jego kobiety
Which leads me to believe its the genitive form of the pronoun... literally "of him".
Anyway, whether you think of it as a possessive pronoun (or possessive adjective, as that's really how were using the other ones in the list above here) that doesn't decline, OR as the genitive form of the pronoun, it doesn't really matter. The effect is the same.
One thing that you might not be aware is that in Polish there aren't two forms for possesion like English "his" and "of him". „Jego” can be interpreted as either, and so does any other possesive pronoun. Third person possesive pronouns are special in that they don't change with the gender of the objects, but other than that there is nothing special in them, even in the literal meaning.
It's the other way round. "ryba" is the basic, Nominative form (one fish). "ryb" is Genitive plural (There are no fish here)
True. It's probably best to report such cases rather than just mentioning it in the comments.
It's a bit too different. In the Polish sentence, the subject is "to" (it/this/that). In yours, the subject is "that fish". You can see it more easily if you imagine it as a declarative sentence: That is his fish vs That fish is his.
I don't understand your response Jellei, could you please elaborate? Thank you.
In the sentence isn't 'to' (is) the verb, and 'ryba' (a fish / the fish) the subject?
I cannot appreciate the distinction you make between 'That is his fish' and 'That fish is his'.
Starting from the second question: well, but there surely is a difference and it may not even be a small one.
If you say "That fish is his", you know that there is some fish, and you say that it belongs to 'him'. "That fish" is the grammatical subject.
If you say "That is his fish", the new information is "his fish", so 'fish' is also a part of the new information. Perhaps the fish is in the box, so we didn't even know it's a fish until now? And the subject is "That" - serving as the dummy pronoun.
In Polish the differences are exactly the same.
Back to the first one: no, I don't think that "to" is the verb. I'm not even sure if it can ever be called a verb, but let's simplify and call it that way... so it's a 'verb' in a sentence like "Ryba to zwierzę", but not here, here it's the subject. "To (jest) jego ryba" = "This is his fish".