"Ten kot jest mały."

Translation:This cat is small.

December 20, 2015

27 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/diegoruizb

Still confused about when to use "jest" or just "to". Some clues?

December 20, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/vytah
  • 1332

You can only replace "jest" with "to" between two nouns.

December 20, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/JoeWicz

You're a miracle

February 1, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/jruota

In Polish, if you want to say "This cat!" (notice the exclamation mark), you say "Ten kot!". On the other hand, "This is a cat." would be "To jest kot." The difference is that "ten" indicates the male gender and is very specific about something. "To" is neuter and indicates that something rather unknown is about to be described. The sentence would be perfectly fine if you left the "jest" out, "To jest kot." and "To kot." are both correct and have the same meaning, "to" does not replace "jest".

Also look at the following sentence: "Ten kot to kot mojego dziadka." (This cat is my grandfather's cat.) It first describes a very specific cat ("Ten kot ...") and later describes it ("... to kot mojego dziadka.") Also note that "To kot mojego dziadka." would rather be used if you saw a single cat, as opposed to "Ten kot to kot mojego dziadka" if you saw at least two cats.

June 1, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/Glavanec

The construction with "to" is an archaism which evolved from a special type of sentence structure in Slavic languages, which was used to emphasize the subject of some statement. Schematically, it can be described as: "(det) Subj... Pron (referring to Subj) Verb-Phrase", e.g. "Einstein... he was a smart man!", "The dog... it is man's best friend." or "The money... don't think about it!" In Polish it seems that the copula (i.e. jest) has become redundant in this type of sentences and hence is omitted, however, in other Slavic languages it is still compulsory (for instance in Bulgarian). So in conclusion - you can use "to" if it makes sense in English to say "A, he/she/it is B".

April 21, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/polec2

What's the difference between sound of ''e'' and ''y'' in Polish?

April 11, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/Koimei

"E" sounds like "E" from "end" or "epic" or "especially"

I don't think that you have an english equivalent of "Y" sound, sadly. I can't think of any words...

I suggest you to put some words with "Y" in google translate and play the sound. Like "łyżwy", "mały", "syty". So you can find the difference by yourself.

February 22, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/alex150134

E is pronounced like the e in reflect and y is pronounced like the i in hiccup

April 30, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/MaryPat667153

Which E in reflect? They have different sounds

April 23, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/Jellei

The second one.

April 24, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/VijaiRaj

why maly insted male,coz the neuter is male.sorry i don't have polish keypad.

October 3, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/Jellei

"Kot" is masculine.

October 3, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/VijaiRaj

how do i differentiate a noun as masculine ,feminine and neuter in a sentence?

October 3, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/Jellei

Mostly: masculine ones end in a consonant, femine ones in -a, and neuter in -o or -e. But the number of exceptions is not that small. Still, this should be your first presumption.

Some clearly masculine words like "mężczyzna" and "tata" end in -a, but by definition, they have to be masculine as they describe men.

October 3, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/Oikabubo

I thought ,,jest'' indicate instrumental case. But ,,maly'' is nominative. Shouldn't it be ,,malym''? What had happened?

November 2, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/Jellei

Long answer: read here, especially Part Three.

Short answer: it indicates Instrumental, but for a noun phrase. If it's just an adjective, it stays in Nominative.

So: Ten kot jest mały (This cat is small), but: Ten kot jest małym zwierzęciem (This cat is a small animal).

November 2, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/rogeriomonteiro1

Which is the function of "mały" here? Hint says nominative but wouldn't it be accusative?

September 2, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/Jellei

No, this is a sentence built as "X is Y", with Y being an adjective, it's a pretty simple construction and there's no need for any change from Nominative.

September 2, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/rogeriomonteiro1

Doskonały!

September 2, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/Jellei

You rather need an adverb in your comment, and that will be "Doskonale" :)

September 3, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/Angel_Blicharska

why don't we write "Ten kot jest malego?" Kot is an animated animal, isnt it?

January 7, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/Jellei

You mixed some stuff. Firstly, the notion of being 'animate' is only important for masculine nouns in Accusative. So for example "Widzę małego kota" (I see a small cat) vs "Widzę mały stół" (I see a small table).

Secondly, if you have a sentence like "X is Y" and Y is an adjective, it just stays in Nominative. And the alternative (when Y is a noun phrase) is Instrumental (Ten kot jest małym zwierzęciem = This cat is a small animal), not Accusative.

January 9, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/Angel_Blicharska

that's true! Thank you =)!

January 9, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/Darth_Elven

"This is a small cat". Why not?

February 24, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/Jellei

It changes the subject. The subject of the sentence is "This cat", not "This".

February 27, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/Katie992496

What does that L with the line through it make?

May 31, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/Jellei

Ł is an important Polish letter. It makes more or less the same sounds as English W.

June 1, 2017
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