"Ten kot jest mały."

Translation:This cat is small.

December 20, 2015

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Still confused about when to use "jest" or just "to". Some clues?

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You can only replace "jest" with "to" between two nouns.


You're a miracle


In Polish, if you want to say "This cat!" (notice the exclamation mark), you say "Ten kot!". On the other hand, "This is a cat." would be "To jest kot." The difference is that "ten" indicates the male gender and is very specific about something. "To" is neuter and indicates that something rather unknown is about to be described. The sentence would be perfectly fine if you left the "jest" out, "To jest kot." and "To kot." are both correct and have the same meaning, "to" does not replace "jest".

Also look at the following sentence: "Ten kot to kot mojego dziadka." (This cat is my grandfather's cat.) It first describes a very specific cat ("Ten kot ...") and later describes it ("... to kot mojego dziadka.") Also note that "To kot mojego dziadka." would rather be used if you saw a single cat, as opposed to "Ten kot to kot mojego dziadka" if you saw at least two cats.


The construction with "to" is an archaism which evolved from a special type of sentence structure in Slavic languages, which was used to emphasize the subject of some statement. Schematically, it can be described as: "(det) Subj... Pron (referring to Subj) Verb-Phrase", e.g. "Einstein... he was a smart man!", "The dog... it is man's best friend." or "The money... don't think about it!" In Polish it seems that the copula (i.e. jest) has become redundant in this type of sentences and hence is omitted, however, in other Slavic languages it is still compulsory (for instance in Bulgarian). So in conclusion - you can use "to" if it makes sense in English to say "A, he/she/it is B".


E is pronounced like the e in reflect and y is pronounced like the i in hiccup


Which E in reflect? They have different sounds


The second one.


What's the difference between sound of ''e'' and ''y'' in Polish?

[deactivated user]

    "E" sounds like "E" from "end" or "epic" or "especially"

    I don't think that you have an english equivalent of "Y" sound, sadly. I can't think of any words...

    I suggest you to put some words with "Y" in google translate and play the sound. Like "łyżwy", "mały", "syty". So you can find the difference by yourself.


    Which is the function of "mały" here? Hint says nominative but wouldn't it be accusative?


    No, this is a sentence built as "X is Y", with Y being an adjective, it's a pretty simple construction and there's no need for any change from Nominative.


    You rather need an adverb in your comment, and that will be "Doskonale" :)


    This cat is perfect - Ten kot jest (jaki?) doskonały
    This coffee is perfect - Ta kawa jest (jaka?) doskonała
    This apple is perfect - To jabłko jest (jakie?) doskonałe

    (How?) Fantastic! Perfect! - (Jak?) Świetnie! Doskonale!


    why maly insted male,coz the neuter is male.sorry i don't have polish keypad.


    "Kot" is masculine.


    how do i differentiate a noun as masculine ,feminine and neuter in a sentence?


    Mostly: masculine ones end in a consonant, femine ones in -a, and neuter in -o or -e. But the number of exceptions is not that small. Still, this should be your first presumption.

    Some clearly masculine words like "mężczyzna" and "tata" end in -a, but by definition, they have to be masculine as they describe men.


    I thought ,,jest'' indicate instrumental case. But ,,maly'' is nominative. Shouldn't it be ,,malym''? What had happened?


    Long answer: read here, especially Part Three.

    Short answer: it indicates Instrumental, but for a noun phrase. If it's just an adjective, it stays in Nominative.

    So: Ten kot jest mały (This cat is small), but: Ten kot jest małym zwierzęciem (This cat is a small animal).


    "This is a small cat". Why not?


    It changes the subject. The subject of the sentence is "This cat", not "This".


    What does that L with the line through it make?


    Ł is an important Polish letter. It makes more or less the same sounds as English W.


    why don't we write "Ten kot jest malego?" Kot is an animated animal, isnt it?


    You mixed some stuff. Firstly, the notion of being 'animate' is only important for masculine nouns in Accusative. So for example "Widzę małego kota" (I see a small cat) vs "Widzę mały stół" (I see a small table).

    Secondly, if you have a sentence like "X is Y" and Y is an adjective, it just stays in Nominative. And the alternative (when Y is a noun phrase) is Instrumental (Ten kot jest małym zwierzęciem = This cat is a small animal), not Accusative.


    that's true! Thank you =)!


    I'm confused about how to know when to use either stare or stary


    The adjective (przymiotnik) has to agree with the noun:

    masculine singular noun -> This old house - Ten stary dom
    feminine singular noun -> This old book - Ta stara książka
    neuter singular noun -> This old tree - To stare drzewo

    masculine plural noun -> These old houses - Te stare domy
    feminine plural noun -> These old books - Te stare książki
    neuter plural noun -> These old trees - Te stare drzewa


    The word bank only had 'The' and not 'This'... it said 'the cat is small' was correct but it should have been 'this cat is small'


    Well, "The cat is small" is an accepted answer, but it shouldn't be a starred one. It's fixed now.

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