"Do you have a family?"
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I think there is a bug:
I typed "Masz rodzinę" it was counted wrong and was corrected in "Macie rodzinę". But here at the site of the discussion "Masz rodzinę" is suggested as an possible answer. (No typo, the second time I copied the suggested solution: "Masz rodzinę")
No, it is not automatic. The case of the noun in direct object depends on the verb. Most Polish verbs need the noun in accusative, but some require genitive (eg. "potrzebować", "szukać", "używać"). There are some which, depending on context, take either one (eg. "dodawać").
The verb "mieć" (to have) requires the noun in accusative:
family - TO jest (kto? co?) rodzina - Mianownik (Nominative)
to have - Mieć (kogo? co?) rodzinę - Biernik (Accusative)
Well... you use singular "masz" when you're talking to one person and plural "macie" when you're talking (or referring) to more than one person.
By 'referring' I mean that maybe you're only talking to John but when you ask e.g. "Do you have a car?" you mean both him and his wife.
"rodzina" - the basic, Nominative form of the noun, used mostly for the subject of the sentence.
"rodzinę" - the Accusative form, used for the direct object of the sentence. Here, "family" is a direct object of the verb "to have".
"rodziną" - the Instrumental form, used mostly after "z" = "with" and in sentences like "Jesteśmy rodziną" = "We are family".