Why it is not "у мамы есть громкий голос" ? Why is "есть" missing from the sentence ?
Until now it's been there always when someone "has" something : "у меня есть кошка"
«Есть» is not used here because existence/having is not the main point this sentence makes. The fact that mom has a voice is implied, it's not the point of the sentence. The point of the sentence is that mother's voice is loud.
So "у мамы есть голос" would be correct ? If I wanted literally to tell that she do have a voice.
Yes, «у ма́мы есть го́лос» is correct. Without a context, «у мамы есть голос» is likely to be understood that mum has a good vocal abilities, that she can sing well.
I have come to the conclusion that with "есть" you assert existence of something, and without, you assert a quality of something which is already assumed to be existent. In other words, in this case the sentence could be translated as "Mom's voice is loud".
Funfact: "golos" is read "golas" - in Polish it means a naked person. :P
EvenFunnierFact: Word "ponos" means PRIDE in Slovenian and DIARRHEIA in Russian. =8-O
«Как у быка» would be better.
No. Russian expresses possession differently from English: we don't usually use the verb 'to have'. Instead, we say that something exist and use «у» preposition (with genitive) to indicate possessor. So, «у ма́мы гро́мкий го́лос» liteally means something like 'at mother['s possession, there] is [a] loud voice'.
When you make a comparison, you follow the same grammar. So, «У мамы́ гро́мкий го́лос, как у быка́» means 'at mother's [possession, there] is [a] loud voice, like at bull's [possession]'.
If you use nominative, the sentence gets a totally different meaning: «у ма́мы гро́мкий го́лос, как бык» means that mother's voice is similar to a bull: "at mother's [possession, there] is [a] loud voice, like [a] bull'. But how can voice be similar to a bull? 'Loud voice, like a bull' sounds very strange.
i think the article doesn't go for countable/uncountable nouns. instead, it goes to definite/indefinite one. example for "a man" vs "the man". "a man" could be anybody, while "the man" refers to someone that we already knew. i am not a native english speaker so feel free to correct me.