Translation:Sorry, where is the Opera and Ballet Theater?
I don't feel much difference, and I can't come up with a sentence where swapping them would change the meaning.
Thanks! I don't think there are such differences in modern Russian, words "простите" and "извините" now differ only in their origins:
- "прости́те" is from "проси́ть проще́ния" (to ask for forgiveness)
- "извини́те" is word from "вина́", "провини́ться", "я винова́т" (fault, be guilty, I'm guilty)
"Sorry" - you bump into someone in the street and apologize. "Excuse me" is also possible here, it sounds more formal, which is appropriate but not necessary with a stranger in the street. You probably wouldn't use it with someone you know. "I'm sorry" can also be used to apologize after doing something wrong, when "excuse me" doesn't work. As pankrates said, use "excuse me" if you want to get someone's attention, not "sorry". "Forgive me" isn't commonly used, you would only say that after doing something wrong to someone, it means literally what it says, that you want them to forgive you for what you did.
I think a good general rule would be to use "excuse me" to apologize for something that hasn't happened yet, but "sorry" for something that already happened. For example, if you are in a meeting and your phone rings, you would say "please excuse me" to apologize for answering the phone, but "sorry about that" to apologize for not having turned it off. That's why you use "excuse me" to get someone's attention, it's sort of an apology for what's coming next