"That woman is bad."
Translation:Tamta kobieta jest zła.
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Well, you just use different forms. "zły" is the masculine adjective, right? And then there are different forms: "zła" (feminine), "złe" (neuter singular and 'not masculine-personal plural)' and "źli" (masculine personal plural). The masculine personal form is usually quite different from the other ones, it's kinda... softened. "źle" is the adverb and clearly it's more similar to the masculine personal form here.
Frankly, "angry" seems the most probable for me. Then "evil" could use some word to strengthen the message, even like "Ta kobieta jest po prostu zła" = This woman is simply evil.
As for "bad"... I have to say that I'm not sure what exactly it would convey in this sentence.
Note that "Amerykanką" should be written with a capital letter, because it's a noun (meaning "an American woman/girl"). Nouns denoting nationalities (so nouns for people) are written with a capital letter, adjectives are not ("an American car" = "amerykański samochód").
Now that we know it's a noun, that's exactly where the difference is. A noun phrase takes the Instrumental case in such a sentence, a standalone adjective (as here) stays unchanged, which usually means that it takes Nominative.