Only in diminutive (like: „Moja duszka”) and if you are 120+ years old… Seriously, my Grandfather used to use it toward my Grandmother, but he was born in 1892 – in modern Polish it is no longer used like that and would be perceived as a joke/sarcasm by most(certainly by me).
I think it might be Russian: https://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=Dushka
Well, https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%D0%B4%D1%83%D1%88%D0%B0#Russian gives three meanings, one of which is "darling".
https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%D0%B4%D1%83%D1%88%D0%BA%D0%B0#Etymology_1 gives "ду́шка" as a simple diminutive of "душа".
I have heard older English speakers saying things like "she's a pleasant soul" so a link is perhaps not impossible.