"Barış has a white coat."
Translation:Barış'ın beyaz bir ceketi var.
Native speaker here!
(I have never heard meşki btw :|)
"Ak" and "Beyaz" are synonyms, however, we don't use "Ak" in daily conversation so frequently; it is used in idioms and literacy as a symbol of "pureness".
Kara and Siyah are also synonyms, however (again), we usually use Kara in literacy just as "Ak" or idioms or when we want to mean that something is REALLY black.
Here is a Turkish proverb;
"Ak akçe kara gün içindir" => The white (pure) money is for the black (bad) day.
You cannot say "Beyaz akçe siyah gün içindir", that would be meaningless. Because in Turkish (and most other languages) words have different meanings and values while they mean the same thing. Another examples:
Beyaz => White | Ak => White, pureness, sinlessness
Siyah => Black | Kara => Black, bad, sombre
Kırmızı => Red | Kızıl => Red, reddish-orange, the colour of sunrise and sunset, (in literacy) someone who is cruel and bloody. | Al => Red, the colour of blood ("Al bayrak" is a name used for Turkish flag, the word "Al" expresses both the colour of the flag and also the martyrs who died while protecting it.)
How does one know when to put an apostrophe before the ending, as in Bariş'in?
An apostrophe is used with proper nouns to determine the genitive case possessor & the possessive suffix -si for what is being possessed. A bit scary like the film, "Exorcist."
Hilmi'nin --> Hilmi's
Please excuse me; your first name is Tessa?
Back vowels: (a, ı, o & u) back vowels can only be followed by a back vowel.
Tessa'nın --> Tessa's.
Buffer (n) consonant is used if the proper noun ends in a vowel.