"Do these men know them?"
Translation:Czy ci mężczyźni je znają?
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No. You have to choose yourself whether you will decide that 'they' are only women or there is at least one man among them. Nothing in this sentence suggests any of those answers, they are equally correct.
In real life you'd have context = you'd know whom you're talking about, so then of course you choose the word accordingly.
To jest kurs podstawowy, w którym nie akceptujemy rzadkich konstrukcji składniowych, ponieważ nie brzmią one zbyt naturalnie.
Porównałem częstotliwość wystąpień zaimka 'ich' na końcu podobnych zdań składających się z pięciu słów z częstotliwością wystąpień tego zaimku przed czasownikiem. Sam możesz wprowadzić kod w wyszukiwarkę korpusu i się przekonać:
[orth="[.?!]"] [pos!=interp] [pos=noun] [pos!=interp & orth!="nie|i"] ich [pos="fin|praet"] [pos=aglt]? [orth="[.?!]"]
[orth="[.?!]"] [pos!=interp] [pos=noun] [pos!=interp & orth!="nie|i"] [pos="fin|praet"] [pos=aglt]? ich [orth="[.?!]"]
It's not wrong, it just gives an emphasis that rarely makes sense. The stress in the Polish sentence goes at the end, most important informatation goes at the end. So "Ci mężczyźni znają ich" is like "These men know THEM". Sure, you can say that, especially in rapid speech that wasn't carefully thought through, but we try to teach people to avoid doing it.
I am now on level 4 and it is still not sticking. Too many pronouns to learn in one go, in too many structures. It is no good saying one should not put a pronoun at the end, and then use them that: 'mamy ją'. When is the cut off between the two? Perhaps do the range of pronouns first, then a later section for the earlier position, or something like that.
True, we do have many words for a boy: "chłopczyk", "chłopiec", "chłopak", "chłopaczysko", "chłopczysko", "chłopaczyna", "chłopczyna", "chłoptaś", "chłoptyś", "chłopię", "chłopiątko" to name just those with the same stem "chłop".
"Chłopiec" and "chłopcem" are just two different cases of the same noun and "chłopcy" and "chłopaki" are version of the plural.
However, in any language there are words that are spelled the same but have completely different meaning. These are called homographs (Polish: "cis" = C sharp sound and "cis" = yew, pronounced differently; English: "a minute and a minute detail). There are also homonyms that sound the same (Polish: "morze" = sea and "może' = maybe; English: sea and see). Finally, there are words that are both homographs and homonyms (Polish "je" = them and "je = (he) eats; English: to sow and a sow, an animal).
"je" does indeed also mean "(he/she/it) [eats/is eating]", but I think it's better not to give it too much thought. Sometimes two completely unrelated words just look the same.
"znają" means "(they) know", it doesn't mean "them".
Now, as you aleady know, there are two words for "they" in Polish: "oni" (PT: "eles") and "one" (PT: "elas").
As the verb "znać" (PT: "conhecer") takes the Accusative case, the Accusative form of "oni" is "ich", and for "one" it's "je".
So "Czy ci mężczyźni [ich/je] znają?" are equally correct here, because we have no context here which could tell us whether "them" is "Mark and Steve" or "Joanna and Kate".
"Ci mężczyźni znają je?" didn't work
"Czy ci mężczyźni znają je?" didn't work
"Ci mężczyźni znają ich?" didn't work
"Czy ci mężczyźni znają ich?" didn't work
But then "Ci mężczyźni ich znają?" did.
Someone explain to me how Polish pronouns works. I am having a stroke trying to understand them.
There is a rule discussed in this tread already, (https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/12488345?comment_id=34620650) saying that we don't put pronouns at the end if it can be avoided. So, your first four answers are disqualified this way. Now, the last one, even though the word "czy" is omitted, can work with the right intonation, it's a little odd but acceptable. Don't loose your head over it, it's not worth it.
"Wiedzieć" and "znać" are not interchangeable.
"Wiedzieć coś" means to have the knowledge of something, but one cannot "wiedzieć kogoś". This verb does not accept human objects.
On the other hand, "znać" means "to be acquainted or familiar with" and you can be acquainted with both humans ("znać kogoś) and to be familiar with things or ideas ("znać coś").
"tych" is the Genitive or Accusative case, but "mężczyźni" is the Nominative case that must be preceded by a demonstrative pronoun in the Nominative case as well because it is the subject of the sentence: "ci mężczyźni"
The demonstrative pronoun "tych" would have to be followed by "mężczyzn".
I don't know what this sentence has with it that more people suggest such a word order than in any other sentence I noticed, but no, I don't believe that this is a word order we'd like to teach. If you have another place to put a pronoun like "je", it should be put there and not at the end of the sentence.
You mean "je"/"ich"? We want you to avoid putting a pronoun at the end of the sentence if it's possible to avoid it. So "[Czy/] ci mężczyźni [je/ich] znają?" can easily avoid it. "Oni [je/ich] znają" also can avoid it. But you can also omit the subject pronoun and just say "Znają [je/ich]", which is perfectly correct and natural, but there just isn't any other place for the pronoun to go, so it ends up at the end.
Putting a pronoun (other than the subject pronoun) at the beginning of the sentence is very rarely correct, so that's why it couldn't be "[Je/Ich] znają".
Please, take no offence. I do not wish to offend. However, a bit of advice from an educator concerning your answer. Possibly, a better way to have written it would be: "Please see above for answer from Godzilla 1111." Please, it is only a suggestion on subject. Have a good day.
In the second example, there actually isn't another option than to put "go" at the end, there's no other place. It surely can't be at the beginning of the sentence, and it also can't be right after "nie", because you want to negate "knowing him", not just "him".
"Nie go znają" should be treated as an attempt to say "It is not him whom they know (they know someone else, not him"). Firstly, that's already a bit odd, and secondly, there's a separate, emphasized form that would be needed here: "jego". "Nie jego znają".
If we added the subject pronoun (oni/one) to that sentence, that creates room for "go" to not go at the end of the sentence. We'd end up with "Oni go nie znają".