Would "I need water" work without the "some"?
That would be "Potrzebuję wody.", which doesn't specify the quantity of water you need.
The most literal translation of "Potrzebuję trochę wody" would be "I need a bit of water", which specifies that you only need a small amount.
What about the other way then: 'potrzebuję wody' can be translated as 'I need some water', can't it? The 'some' doesn't imply only a small amount, it implies some amount or other
With water, it seems acceptable to consider "Potrzebuję wody" more or less the same thing. Added "I need water" and "Potrzebuję wody".
What about potrzebuję wodę? Woda being feminine would take ę for the accusative, yes? At least that's what's on my chart.
That's true, but "potrzebować" takes Genitive, not Accusative.
Doesn't potrzebować take Genitive? But trochę is Accusative, isn't it? Why is that?
"Trochę" is an adverb, so it inflects for neither gender nor case.