How can I tell differentiate between "ta" = "this" and "ta" = "that". I'm never quite sure
As far as I understand, technically 'ta'~'this' and 'tamta'~'that', it's just that there are a few contexts when one would use the 'that' version in English but still only the 'this' one in Polish. A Polish speaker once asked me to explain when we would use each in English, which I found quite hard. Anyway I believe that for the course (and, I suppose, in the real world unless Polish has more strict rules than English - can I get an opinion from a native speaker please?) you can always translate 'ta' as 'this', and 'that' as tamta/tamten/tamto (can a moderator please confirm that?)
How do you differ between present progressive and simple present, i.e. "is writing" vs "writes"?