"He likes the teacher."
Translation:Er mag den Lehrer.
Yes, correct translation.
"Er gefällt mir" is slightly more sight-orientated, "Ich mag ihn" is slightly more taste-orientated.
So it is "Ich mag diesen Kuchen" - I like this cake.
But "Das Feuerwerk hat mir gefallen" - I liked the fireworks.
So "Ich mag den Lehrer" covers the meaning of "I feel attached to him", whereas "Der Lehrer gefällt mir" is something you could say at very first sight. In general both sentences are good translations of "I like the teacher"
Yes, "die Lehrerin" = the (female) teacher. "the teachers" = die Lehrer
Nice streak btw (466).
In addition: the plural of the female variant is formed by adding the ending -innen to the singular of the male variant, e.g. die Bäckerinnen, die Lehrerinnen und die Schülerinnen.
That would be more appropriate if the sentence was the answer to the question : "who does he like?"
What is the difference between 'er mag den Lehrer' and 'er mag die Lehrerin'?
In the first version the teacher is male, in the second one it is female.