"Jesz tamtą rybę."
Translation:You are eating that fish.
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E or ę, and a or ą is based on the noun case. The word by itself ends in a (ryba) but if it is the object of the verb, it ends in ę (rybę). At least that is what Duolingo says is true in this case. Duolingo doesn't explicitly teach this idea, you have to go elswhere. Search for 'noun case' and 'declension'.
I think the confusion comes out as "ta" gets declined as "tę" while "tamta" as "tamtą". 99% of feminine adjectives are declined (in accusative form) as "-ą", while feminine nouns as "-ę". "Tę" (being an adjective) can therefore considered as an exception (I hope moderators will confirm what I'm saying). Powodzenia!