"Więzienie jest w stolicy."
Translation:The prison is in the capital.
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"Kapitol" indeed, but I think it has literally two meanings:
the hill in Rome (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capitoline_Hill)
the building of the US Capitol in Washington
For any other place that is called like that in English, I think the translation would need to be more descriptive. Maybe something using "siedziba" ("headquarters")...
I checked "Madison" on Polish Wikipedia (https://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madison), and although it's not exactly the highest instance in terms of language:
Well, it does mention "Kapitol stanu Wisconsin" and "Kapitol stanowy", thus suggesting that it works.
It's treated as a neuter name ("Madison zostało założone...") and thus I'd say that it's "kapitol stanu w Madison", with no declension. If it was masculine, then it would be "w Madisonie".
So I guess this would sound okay, but people would need a bit deeper knowledge of the US government system to understand what you mean.
I don't think there's such a post. Native speakers rather don't remember that 'this form and this one are identical', we just know the right forms.
Going through a few examples quickly in my head, it's not like for any specific gender those two are always identical - it's probably phonetics, a matter of endings.
Feminine nouns are divided into three groups, depending on their stem ending. The stem ending of stolica is -c, which puts it in the third group: