You might have missed the part where every living "stworzenie" that is not a human is "zwierzę", "stworzenie(creature/creation) is a living istota (being) and istota is stworzenie.
Also check definition of insect in merriam-webster dictionary- you will find out that yes spider is an insect :) Love dictionaried and their writers.
"horse -how it looks everyone has seen ":)
A spider is not an insect. It is an arachnid. Insects have 6 legs and arachnids have 8.
Stworzenie = creature… Interesting. I never realized creature has the same root as creation until this discussion. In English, "creation" is a religious term and "creature" is not.
Humans are animals too, though usually people tend to use the word to talk about non-human animals. People also tend to exclude insects, arachnids, and other small creatures. I guess the most common thought is a mammal or perhaps a bird.
Life and death can be very arbitrary at times. People still argue about whether or not viruses are living organisms. Some may also arguing about bacteria. If you don't count either one and then throw fungi into plants, you might get that definition of "animal."
There are up to 5 other kingdoms in biology, depending on how you count.
Whoa… That's gonna take awhile. ;)
So… Some languages have a case system, which is a system of denoting the role that a word has in the sentence by inflecting it. While the case system is very simplified by now, English is among those languages:
- Nominative: he
- Objective(accusative-dative merged together): him
- Possessive(what's left from genitive): his
Note that objective case is only marked on pronouns, nouns are left unmarked:
- N: Peter
- O: Peter
- P: Peter's
If you consider now the difference between sentences: "He gives me a book" and (not very natural) "Him give I a book" you should have the basic understanding how the case system works.
Polish has much more extensive case system, consisting of 7 cases(note that those descriptions are very general, actual use might be context/sentence dependant):
- Nominative, generally used for subject of the sentence
- Genitive, used for possession and for direct object of negated sentences
- Dative, mostly used for indirect object of the sentence
- Accusative, used for direct object in positive statements
- Instrumental, used for the object used to perform the action described by the verb(ie. replacing English 'with': „Jem (I.)widelcem” = 'I eat with a fork')
- Locative, generally used to denote the location at which the sentence takes place, as the name of the case implies ;)
- Vocative, used to address people
The big part of the difference between English and Polish, is that Polish marks case also on nouns as well as adjectives, numerals and many other parts of speech, so for example „pies”('dog' – note that for readability, this only includes the singular):
- nominative: pies
- genitive: psa
- dative: psu
- accusative: psa
- instrumental: psem
- locative: psie
- vocative: psie
And that is pretty much the answer to your question – the difference between „pies” and „psem” is similar to the difference between 'he' and 'him'.
Now, if you wonder why the instrumental case is used in 'X is Y' sentences, you might want to check a rather thorough description of it by Jellei.
Hope that helps. :)