I don't think so. I can think of two cases when you use phrase "Co to za dźwięk?": 1. when you suddenly hear something strange or perhaps you are frightened by a sound or noise. 2. when you play guessing game. I am not native English speaker, but I don't think you would use expression "What kind of sound is this?" in any of above cases.
That's correct. Other examples: Co to za smak? = what flavor is it? (about food) Co to za książka? = what book is that? Co to za kobieta? = who is that woman? but Co za kobieta! = What a woman! ( doesn't need to be about woman. It's just a common example ) There is also similar expression: Ale kobieta! Means basically the same, but doesn't use "za".