"Szukam wody. Jest potrzebna dla mojego psa."
Translation:I am looking for water. It is necessary for my dog.
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The sentence "Jest potrzebna dla mojego psa" is not correct.
Szukam wody. Jest konieczna dla mojego/mego psa -
I am looking for water. It is necessary for my dog
Szukam wody. Potrzebuję jej dla mego psa -
I am looking for water. I need it for my dog
Szukam wody. Mój pies jej potrzebuje -
I am looking for water. My dog needs it.
I'd say that there's nothing negative about "szukać" (although some people use a mnemonic technique and consider that if you're looking for something, it means that right now you don't have it and that's negative). The verb "szukać" is just one of those exceptions that take a direct object in Genitive instead of Accusative, you need to remember those.
"mojego psa" is in Genitive because of the word "dla".
From the etymological perspective it looks like either the noun or the adjective was there first and the verb was derived later. In which case the verb suffix -ować is quite common (potrzeb- is the (prefixed) stem here).
-ny and -owy seem to be the most common adjective suffixes, but the latter doesn't apply here. I'm unaware of any rules regarding which one is used in which case. It may have something to do with the stem ending, hence with phonetics, but it would require some research to figure this out.