"Czy mówi pani po angielsku?"
Translation:Do you speak English?
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It's incredibly formal these days and it would only ever be used by for instance wait staff or shop assistants in an incredibly posh establishment but I think 'does madam speak English?' would be an acceptable translation. At least that's how I mentally translate the formal second person.
I would not hear this in my everyday life, but I certainly would hear it on TV--an English speaking butler saying, "Would the lady like tea? Would the gentleman care for some dinner?" Or, as verticordian said, at ridiculously formal establishments. Therefore the phrasing exists all over the English speaking world, just in contrived instances. (But for any English speakers struggling to understand how to use this, think of a butler in an old movie and suddenly pan and pani meaning "you" makes sense)
I wasn't advocating for change. I think y'all got it right! (I seriously love this program). I understand you are looking for normal conversation, not contrived wording. I just wanted to help an English speaker understand the Polish construction of these formal sentences. We have it, we just don't really use it. Keep up the good work!
It does in constructions with Formal You, which I guess you can treat as fixed phrases. It's not "proszę" as in "I am asking for", it's rather like "Excuse me, sir/madame".
By the way, it's a relatively common mistake for Polish people to say "Proszę panią" when they should have used "Proszę pani", and a joking answer can be "Do tańca"? "Proszę panią do tańca" is like "I'd like to ask you for a dance, madame" ;)
As for Vocative, it would work perfectly with people, when actually meaning "please". "Proszę, mamo/tato/Marku/Aniu!" = "Please, mom/dad/Marek/Ania!"
So, if I understood well: pan (litt. sir) -> when addressing to a man pani (litt. lady) -> when addressing a woman panowie (litt. gentlemen) -> when addressing to some men panie (litt. ladies) -> when addressing to some women panstwo -> when addressing to a group where there are both men and women
I think that (apart from very formal situations) it's rather an Austrian than a German thing to call someone "Herr/Frau Doktor" unless he or she is a medical doctor. Some people say that Austrians miss their titles of nobility and so they hang on to those few remaining titles.
That would change the meaning of the sentence. You can leave out "normal" pronouns, but if you omit the Formal You form, it's just as if you were asking about some 3rd person that must be known from the context.
So "Czy mówi po angielsku?" would be "Does he/she speak English?".
Well yes, we probably wouldn't use the title in most circumstances, but to me that is a different sentence. If I were to be speaking formally to a stranger — like maybe if I were in a fancy hotel or something — I might say "Excuse me, do you speak English, Sir?". And at many schools the students still address the teachers as Miss and Sir. It weirds me out, but they do it.
Well... Wiktionary for "po" (at https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/po#Preposition_6 ) states that "po" takes dative with adjectives when used in the sense of a language. It also states that "Dative adjectives that end in -ski for the lemma take the archaic suffix -sku instead of the usual -skiemu when used with this preposition."
Does that help?
Looking at https://context.reverso.net/t%C5%82umaczenie/polski-angielski/czy+pani+m%C3%B3wi it seems to be perfectly correct, but I cannot speak for Duo.... Try it and see!
It's probably a matter of emphasis: "Do you speak English?" (as opposed to somebody else in the room) against "Do you speak English?" (as well as being able to read and write English)
This lesson is teaching you how to use the formal version of "you", which are forms involving "pan" (m) and "pani" (f). So, "mówisz" is fine for friends and family, but you'd use "pan(i)" for more formal situations.
The "pan(i)" forms take the third person, hence "mówi" instead of "mówisz".
One difference is that I believe (it really surprised me) that you can omit "usted" in a Spanish sentence but you can't omit "pan/pani" in a Polish one, because it will be understood as "Does she/he speak English?".
In Spanish "¿Habla inglés?", I believe, can mean both "Does he/she speak English?" and "Do you speak English[, sir/, ma'am]?", but I would never understand "Czy mówi po angielsku?" as "Do you speak English?".