It's incredibly formal these days and it would only ever be used by for instance wait staff or shop assistants in an incredibly posh establishment but I think 'does madam speak English?' would be an acceptable translation. At least that's how I mentally translate the formal second person.
I would not hear this in my everyday life, but I certainly would hear it on TV--an English speaking butler saying, "Would the lady like tea? Would the gentleman care for some dinner?" Or, as verticordian said, at ridiculously formal establishments. Therefore the phrasing exists all over the English speaking world, just in contrived instances. (But for any English speakers struggling to understand how to use this, think of a butler in an old movie and suddenly pan and pani meaning "you" makes sense)
I wasn't advocating for change. I think y'all got it right! (I seriously love this program). I understand you are looking for normal conversation, not contrived wording. I just wanted to help an English speaker understand the Polish construction of these formal sentences. We have it, we just don't really use it. Keep up the good work!
It does in constructions with Formal You, which I guess you can treat as fixed phrases. It's not "proszę" as in "I am asking for", it's rather like "Excuse me, sir/madame".
By the way, it's a relatively common mistake for Polish people to say "Proszę panią" when they should have used "Proszę pani", and a joking answer can be "Do tańca"? "Proszę panią do tańca" is like "I'd like to ask you for a dance, madame" ;)
As for Vocative, it would work perfectly with people, when actually meaning "please". "Proszę, mamo/tato/Marku/Aniu!" = "Please, mom/dad/Marek/Ania!"
So, if I understood well: pan (litt. sir) -> when addressing to a man pani (litt. lady) -> when addressing a woman panowie (litt. gentlemen) -> when addressing to some men panie (litt. ladies) -> when addressing to some women panstwo -> when addressing to a group where there are both men and women
You can… In fact, for a „Professor zwyczajny”(ie. actual full professor and not 'teaching(or assistant or whatever) professor', it would/could be perceived as impolite or even derogatory not to mention the title. Same goes for Bishops, Cardinals, Prime Ministers(usually Ministers too), Presidents and Rectors.
You can, but it's not obligatory, mention the title for vice-Ministers, Speakers of Parliament(for Speakers of Sejm is mandatory too, I think), Secretaries of State(sekretarz stanu), Ph.D., Ambassadors and priests.
You can and it's overkill, that might(but doesn't have to – all in the context) be perceived as a depreciating jocular manner of speech, mention the titles for MSc(magister), engineers(mgr inż.) and especially for Bachelor's degree/licencjat.
I'd just add that:
1) priests are not "pan ksiądz", but "ksiądz", and bishops and cardinals are "ksiądz biskup", "ksiądz kardynał". And it's obligatory to use "ksiądz", it is seen as really impolite to use "pan",
2) I think in work places like building sites and factories, engineers are called "inżynier" but in places like design office that would be overkill.
The same thing is with "magister", it's used when talking to teachers in universities, but anywhere else it's too much.
Yeah, you just made me realise I put it somehow confusing – it should also be added that when addressing a priest directly it should be „Ojcze”(at least for „ksiądz proboszcz”), for a bishop it should be „Wasza Ekscelencjo” and for Cardinal, „Wasza Eminencjo”.
For ambassadors of Poland it should be „Panie Ambasadorze”/„Pani Ambasador” and for ambassadors of other countries it should be „Wasza Ekscelencjo”.
Obviously, there are also special forms of address for Kings and Queens, but somehow I doubt that will ever be an issue, so I skipped these. ;)
For Monarchy it's easy, it's the exact translation of "Your Highness" = "Wasza Wysokość". Although "wasza" is technically plural 'you', you use it to refer to a single person.
If you talked both to the king and the queen, then I believe it would be "Wasze Wysokości".
And when talking about them but not addressing them, it's His/Her Highness: Jego/Jej Wysokość.
I think that (apart from very formal situations) it's rather an Austrian than a German thing to call someone "Herr/Frau Doktor" unless he or she is a medical doctor. Some people say that Austrians miss their titles of nobility and so they hang on to those few remaining titles.
Well yes, we probably wouldn't use the title in most circumstances, but to me that is a different sentence. If I were to be speaking formally to a stranger — like maybe if I were in a fancy hotel or something — I might say "Excuse me, do you speak English, Sir?". And at many schools the students still address the teachers as Miss and Sir. It weirds me out, but they do it.
Looking at https://context.reverso.net/t%C5%82umaczenie/polski-angielski/czy+pani+m%C3%B3wi it seems to be perfectly correct, but I cannot speak for Duo.... Try it and see!
It's probably a matter of emphasis: "Do you speak English?" (as opposed to somebody else in the room) against "Do you speak English?" (as well as being able to read and write English)
That would change the meaning of the sentence. You can leave out "normal" pronouns, but if you omit the Formal You form, it's just as if you were asking about some 3rd person that must be known from the context.
So "Czy mówi po angielsku?" would be "Does he/she speak English?".
Well... Wiktionary for "po" (at https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/po#Preposition_6 ) states that "po" takes dative with adjectives when used in the sense of a language. It also states that "Dative adjectives that end in -ski for the lemma take the archaic suffix -sku instead of the usual -skiemu when used with this preposition."
Does that help?
Dropping the "pani" completely changes the meaning of the sentence.
This exercise is teaching the use of "pani" as a polite form of "you", addressed to a lady. Without the "pani" there, instead of "you", you are referring to a third party, who is either a "he" or a "she", so the meaning changes from "Do you speak Polish?" to "Does he/she speak Polish"?