"whom" is not archaic. It is the word, in English, that should be used when it is the object. Period. The language is butchered. It is not different than saying "Me and him are going to the store" ...which MANY people say when speaking English, today...instead of the correct way, "he and I are going to the store". It is NOT archaic. The language is being butchered.
But I would argue that languages change all the time, always have done, always will do, and the trend seems to be to lose much of the case system with some bonified PIE languages (Welsh, Italian, Spanish, English). I get that English was standardised with 'whom' as an object/accusative case version of the subject/nominative 'who' but it was also standardised the pronunciation of the 'gh' in such words like 'night' as a hard 'ch'/'kh' sound (such as Scottish 'LoCH', the K sound in words like 'knight', 'knob', know' was also voiced, unlike our pronunciation today, and many others. We don't say 'whence' anymore but instead 'from where'. People are going to say 'who do you like' instead of 'whom do you like' but as long as we understand exactly what they mean, then our language is working perfectly well. Afrikaans / Cape Dutch lost all its cases in its modern form, a speaker would say "give it to I", but the language works just as functionally as English and many speakers would be offended if someone called their language 'butchered'.
With the way things are going, 'whom', while being grammatically correct, will go the way of 'thine', and while it would be considered absolutely correct to use this single 2nd person determiner in place of the formal singular/ plural 2nd person 'your', it would be seen as socially archaic.
I prefer to speak and write grammatically-correct English, however I do realize that the language is becoming much more informal and many aspects are changing. Not only do people no longer say "Whom," but I notice that adverbs are disappearing. Many people now say "Drive safe" instead of "drive safely." My son's English teacher here in British Columbia looked at him with disbelief when he used the word whilst.
I think part of the reason is the change in our schools. The lower grades are no longer Grammar School but simply Elementary Schools....VERY ELEMENTARY. Neither of my children have ever diagrammed a sentence.
"Whom" is getting less and less popular with time, and many English learners are not aware of its existence: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Who_%28pronoun%29#Tendency_to_replace_whom_with_who
But how is one to translate, correctly, if we speak it incorrectly in English. It is one thing to just "memorize" the cases. However, I believe "kogo" should always be translated to "whom" so if it spoken, correctly, in English, then the person knows to translate it back to "kogo" in Polish, when needed. "Who" is for when it is the subject. "Whom" is for when it is object. Most people speaking English say this, incorrectly. It is improper use of grammar.
"who do you see?" is grammatically incorrect. Too many people with English as their native language butcher the language. This website needs to teach English the way it should be spoken. Now, I am a bit insecure about the Polish lessons. The translation must be changed to "Whom do you see?". Period!!!
I'm working on understanding Polish grammar and thought I would share my thought process as it may help others, and to check if my understanding is correct.
- Kogo (pronoun) is used because ‘who’ is the direct object, therefore we use accusative.
- Widzisz (verb) is used because we are talking in the 2nd person singular (you) in the present tense.
"Who do you see?" is grammatically INCORRECT. Too many people with English as their native language butcher the language. This website needs to teach English the way it should be spoken. Now, I am a bit insecure about the Polish lessons. The translation must be changed to "Whom do you see?". Period!!!
Is this for learning language, or a popularity contest? Who do you see is not archaic, it is wrong. It is incorrect. Don't teach it! I wonder how much of the Polish you are teaching me is incorrect? Do a lot of English speakers use bad grammar? Of course. Would I ever say "Who do you see"? Absolutely. So what! "Who do you see?" is just as wrong as "Me and her are friends" which is just as common. If you really don't care about correct grammar, then I definitely came to the wrong place to try to learn a new language.
If you distinguish 'who" from "whom", then an English speaking person can fully understand difference between "kto" and "kogo". That is why I am stressing the point. It is not about ego or popularity. If English speaking people understood "who" vs "whom"...then they can wrap their head around the different cases in the Polish Language.
I couldn't understand the distinction. Unfortunately i had to scroll to the bottom of this thread, through all the arguments on evolution and grammatical usage, to find a concise explanation.I think people are forgetting what this comment section is for.
This clarifies it perfectly. "Kto" and "kogo" are like "who" and "whom". Thank you.
I upvoted this comment, FWIW.