"Whom" is getting less and less popular with time, and many English learners are not aware of its existence: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Who_%28pronoun%29#Tendency_to_replace_whom_with_who
But how is one to translate, correctly, if we speak it incorrectly in English. It is one thing to just "memorize" the cases. However, I believe "kogo" should always be translated to "whom" so if it spoken, correctly, in English, then the person knows to translate it back to "kogo" in Polish, when needed. "Who" is for when it is the subject. "Whom" is for when it is object. Most people speaking English say this, incorrectly. It is improper use of grammar.
"whom" is not archaic. It is the word, in English, that should be used when it is the object. Period. The language is butchered. It is not different than saying "Me and him are going to the store" ...which MANY people say when speaking English, today...instead of the correct way, "he and I are going to the store". It is NOT archaic. The language is being butchered.
But I would argue that languages change all the time, always have done, always will do, and the trend seems to be to lose much of the case system with some bonified PIE languages (Welsh, Italian, Spanish, English). I get that English was standardised with 'whom' as an object/accusative case version of the subject/nominative 'who' but it was also standardised the pronunciation of the 'gh' in such words like 'night' as a hard 'ch'/'kh' sound (such as Scottish 'LoCH', the K sound in words like 'knight', 'knob', know' was also voiced, unlike our pronunciation today, and many others. We don't say 'whence' anymore but instead 'from where'. People are going to say 'who do you like' instead of 'whom do you like' but as long as we understand exactly what they mean, then our language is working perfectly well. Afrikaans / Cape Dutch lost all its cases in its modern form, a speaker would say "give it to I", but the language works just as functionally as English and many speakers would be offended if someone called their language 'butchered'.
With the way things are going, 'whom', while being grammatically correct, will go the way of 'thine', and while it would be considered absolutely correct to use this single 2nd person determiner in place of the formal singular/ plural 2nd person 'your', it would be seen as socially archaic.
Allow me to correct you. In Afrikaans one would say , 'n vertaaling is " Gee dit vir my" not "gee dit vir ek"= 'Give it to me' not 'give it to I'. ie: Simple nom. and acc. cases. (and it's never called 'Cape Dutch'). Tutors, please accept my apologies for deviating from the Polish lesson.
I prefer to speak and write grammatically-correct English, however I do realize that the language is becoming much more informal and many aspects are changing. Not only do people no longer say "Whom," but I notice that adverbs are disappearing. Many people now say "Drive safe" instead of "drive safely." My son's English teacher here in British Columbia looked at him with disbelief when he used the word whilst.
I think part of the reason is the change in our schools. The lower grades are no longer Grammar School but simply Elementary Schools....VERY ELEMENTARY. Neither of my children have ever diagrammed a sentence.
I'm working on understanding Polish grammar and thought I would share my thought process as it may help others, and to check if my understanding is correct.
- Kogo (pronoun) is used because ‘who’ is the direct object, therefore we use accusative.
- Widzisz (verb) is used because we are talking in the 2nd person singular (you) in the present tense.