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  5. "Którzy mężczyźni mówią po po…

"Którzy mężczyźni mówią po polsku?"

Translation:Which men speak Polish?

January 3, 2016



Why ktorzy and not ktory?

Is it a gender thing? Case? Plural?


Plural, and of masculine personal gender. "Który" is simply masculine singular.

And here you've got the whole declension and all the genders.


Would "Which men do speak Polish" not work?


Well, we usually don't accept answers with this additional emphasis that 'do' creates... it sounds like "- Ci mężczyźni nie mówią po polsku. - OK, a którzy mężczyźni mówią?" (- These men don't speak Polish. - OK, and which men do?")


Sorry, I am not a native English speaker, but shouldn't we use "do" here as an auxiliary verb because this is a question? I understand that this "do" could be omitted in an informal speech. However, when we write this down formally, conforming the grammar, it should be there, shouldn't it?


There is no need for an auxiliary verb here, not even in formal writing, because the interrogative pronoun which refers to the subject of the sentence. If it were referring to the object (e.g.: which men do you see?) the auxillary "do" would be required.


What's the difference between która and jaka?


Która means "which", the ending of it suggests that the noun accompanied by this possesive pronoun is femenine, singular and Nominative (Biernik). This can be used when the answer could be limited to something you already know about like groups or sets, in a given context availability of something (among these [options], which one?).

Jaka means "what" but reffering to the description (could be simple as an adjective), this is as well a demonstrative pronoun and suggests that the object (noun) that tries to discover more information about is femenine, singular and Nominative, as well.


Not possesive pronoun sorry, both are demonstratives


Nominative (mianownik) :)


I suppose that którzy is like the English "which," but specifically for animate objects. Is that true?


No, not for animate.

But for masculine-personal-plural.

If you are familiar with ten/ta/to/ci/te, then the 'which' equivelants are.....


Here are two examples of each. (I have also included animates and inanimates to show that there is no distinction between the two here)

Który mężczyzna? Ten mężczyzna.

Który but? Ten but.

Która kobieta? Ta kobieta.

Która sukienka? Ta sukienka.

Które dziecko? To dziecko.

Które wino? To wino.

Którzy mężczyzni? Ci mężczyzni.

Które buty? Te buty.

Które kobiety? Te kobiety.

Które sukienki? Te sukienki.

Które dzieci? Te dzieci.

Które wina? Te wina.

Hopefully that covers all the variations for you.

Same rule works with other words as well....

Here's a practice exercise for you

Eg. Stary is 'old'.

Use the nouns used above.

You can try it yourself first, BUT when ready, the answers are......

Stary mężczyzna. Stary but. Stara kobieta. Stara sukienka. Stare dziecko. Stare wino. Starzy mężczyzni. Stare buty. Stare kobiety. Stare sukienki. Stare dzieci. Stare wina.

As you can see, it follows the same pattern.


That's really helpful - thank you!


Does Polish distinguish in normal speech between ' can speak Polish' and ' speak Polish' ( i.e. 'do' speak Polish)?


I'd say no, although if by 'can' you mean more of 'are able to', then we'd translate it. Here, I'd say that both 'can speak' and 'speak' mean the same and translate the same. Added "can".


Which men do speak polish - must be accepted


No, it doesn't have to be accepted because there's no context that would justify the additional emphasis added by the word "do".


You wouldn't say 'do' in normal conversation if you just wanted to know who spoke Polish. It might be added in a particular context. e.g. ' We introduced the language test in order to find out which men do speak Polish'. Even then you could do without the 'do' but it's here added for emphasis

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