First, here we're talking about your profession (teacher, engineer, etc...). Usually the word "job" is used for "travail" in this case.
Also, the word "aimer" can be used both for "like" and "love".
For people we usually mark the difference by using "bien" after "aimer".
- "Je l'aime bien." = "I like him/her" He or she is your buddy, you like having him/her around you.
- "Je t'aime." = "I love you". You're in love with him/her.
But for things, we use more "adorer" than "aimer" to mean something we really like, more than usual.
- "J'adore ce stylo ! " = "I love this pen !"
It's obvious that you're not in love with your pen, but you really like it a lot, more than any pen at the moment.
If you say something like :
- "J'aime mon travail." = "I like my job."
It's clear that your job is not all your life, but it's good, you like it.
I would say so, but it can depend on the speaker and the context.
For objects and concepts, the nuance is usually like this: "j'aime bien" < "j'aime" < "j'adore", but it can vary a bit from person to person (and there are other modifiers like "beaucoup", "vraiment", etc...).
For people, it's usually: "je l'aime bien / Il/elle est sympa", then stronger is "je l'adore" and then comes "je l'aime", which implies love feelings (which can also apply to family love, childhood friends, or pretty much any sort of love that goes beyond simple friendship).
Yeah, "ai" followed by one or two "l" are pronounced with an "ay" sound as in "travail".
The rest of the time it's pronounced like "è" as in "très" or "ê" as in "bête".
Except in some regions of France (and maybe some french speaking countries) where you can hear some people pronounce "ai" at the end of words as "é" in "été", but only if there's nothing behind it, so for example "je voudrai" and "je voudrais" would be pronounced differently by those people.
I grew up in Île-de-France and Maine-et-Loire and I do not make this distinction, I pronounce all "ai" the same way (except of course for the rule I talked about above with the "l"). It's usually not that important because most of the time the context makes it clear which tense you're using.