"It has tasted nice."
Translation:Det har smakt godt.
Hehe, well, that's sort of an answer. ;)
I don't think we're very cognisant of why we choose one over the other, we just do, but I'll give it a try:
With food, "god" is preferred when relating to taste. "Bra" can be used, but is more common as relating to quality.
As an answer to how things are going "bra" is more common, but "godt" is also used. The latter feels slightly more positive to me; like things are genuinely going well as opposed to fine. "Bra" functions as a default, and can thus be more neutral than positive at times, but intonation and body language matter in that respect. I also think "godt" is used more by the older generation; for instance, my grandfather loves exclaiming "Nå har vi det godt, dere!" during family dinners.
When reassuring someone that you're not going to kill them for spilling their drink on you, you'd say "Det går bra.", but never "Det går godt". It's our "It's fine, really... don't worry about it" - sometimes genuine, and sometimes code for "Get as far away from me as humanly possible".
When describing qualities and abilities, "god" is used somewhat more often in relation to humans, than it is to things:
'Hun er en god mor.'
'She's a good mother.'
'Det er en bra bil.'
'That's a good car.'
"Så bra" is used as a positive reaction to a statement:
Person 1: "I just finished the Norwegian tree."
Person 2: "Så bra! Gratulerer!"
But "godt" can be used similarly in the form of "Så godt å [høre/se] at...":
"Så godt å høre at du føler deg bedre!"
"[How good/It's good] to hear that you're feeling better!"
Of course it’s not simple...there's no fun in that ;) That’s sort of the idea I was getting from some of the sites I was checking, but your explanation is a lot more understandable and helpful than the answers I had found.. Your examples are especially helpful; I had wondered if 'det går bra' could also mean 'it's fine'! Thanks :)