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Slow Finnish - Chapter 10c - Saisinko puolukoita?

Partitiivin monikko - The partitive plural

A general note. You can recognise the partitive plural from the letter i. Between two vowels the i turns into a j. So if the word you are forming has neither i nor j, you are doing something wrong. This lesson will be dedicated to words with one or two syllables. I will talk about longer words in the next lesson.

Words ending in -o, -u, -y or . Add -ja or -jä.

  • tyttö - tyttöjä
  • auto - autoja
  • aamu - aamuja
  • sisko - siskoja
  • pöllö - pöllöjä owl

Words ending in -a that have a, e or i in the first syllable. Remove the last letter and replace it with -oja.

  • ilta - iltoja
  • kissa - kissoja
  • kala - kaloja
  • kana - kanoja
  • marja -marjoja
  • silta - siltoja

Words ending in -a that have -o or -u in the first syllable. Remove the last letter and replace it with -ia.

  • koira - koiria
  • kukka -kukkia
  • poika - poikia

Words ending in ; remove the last letter and replace it with -iä.

  • isä - isiä
  • setä - setiä
  • päivä - päiviä
  • kesä - kesiä summer
  • leipä - leipiä bread
  • kylmä - kylmiä cold

New words ending in -i; remove -i and replace it with -eja or -ejä.

  • äiti - äitejä
  • posti - posteja
  • pankki - pankkeja
  • appi - appeja (also appia)
  • täti - tätejä

Old words ending in -i; add -a or .

  • kieli - kieliä
  • järvi - järviä
  • sieni - sieniä
  • nimi - nimiä

Words the stems of which ends in a double vowel in the nominative plural; replace the second vowel with -ita or -itä.

  • maa - maat - maita country
  • perhe - perheet - perheitä
  • kone - koneet - koneita machine

One syllable words with diphthongs -ie, -yö or -uo. The first vowel is dropped and the suffix -ta/-tä is added.

  • yö - öitä
  • työ - töitä job
  • tie - teitä road
  • suo - soita swamp, bog

Words ending in a consonant. The stem used in the nominative plural is employed. The suffixes vary.

  • mies - miehet - miehiä
  • kallis - kalliit - kalliita
  • kaunis - kauniit - kauniita
  • lyhyt - lyhyet - lyhyitä short

Words that end with -nen. -ia/iä is added to the stem used in the nominative plural.

  • nainen - naiset - naisia
  • hevonen - hevoset - hevosia
  • suomalainen -suomalaiset -suomalaisia

Veli is the most common exception to these rules.

  • veli - veljet - veljiä

-lla on - To have

When you use this structure to express plurality, you need the partitive plural.

  • Minulla on kalliita autoja. I have expensive cars.
  • Sinulla on kauniita hevosia You have beautiful horses.
  • Hänellä on kylmiä herneita He has cold peas.

If you want to express definitiness, you need to reverse the word order and replace on with ovat.

  • Kalliit autot ovat minulla. I have the expensive cars.
  • Kauniit hevoset ovat sinulla. You have the beautiful horses.
  • Kylmät herneet ovat hänellä. He has the cold peas.

Harjoitus 1

Muuta partitiivin monikkoon. - Change into the partitive plural.

  • kaunis nainen
  • pieni hiiri
  • suuri perhe
  • pitkä päivä (pitkä long)
  • lyhyt yö
  • iso pöllö
  • kylmä järvi
  • suomalainen nimi
  • setä, eno ja täti
  • äiti ja isä
  • pieni herne
  • kissa ja koira
  • vanha kieli
  • sisko ja veli

Harjoitus 2

Käännä englanniksi. - Translate into English.

  • Minulla on kissoja ja koiria.
  • Kissat ja koirat ovat sinulla.
  • Nuorella naisella on pieniä lapsia.
  • Meillä on kalliita autoja.
  • Teillä on tyttäriä ja poikia.
  • Maanviljelijällä on lehmiä ja sikoja.
  • Pienet sienet ovat heillä.
  • Minulla on siskoja ja veljiä.
  • Suuret herneet ovat meillä.
  • Sinulla on ruotsalaisia autoja.
  • Hänellä on kaloja ja kanoja.
  • Kalat ovat teillä.
  • Kauniit hevoset ovat heillä.
  • Minulla on enoja ja setiä.
  • Kauniit kukat ovat sinulla.

  • oma own
  • maa country
  • muu other

This expression means that although other countries are pretty good, too, there is nothing like Finland.

Let me know what you thought about the lesson. Here is a link to the previous lessons: https://www.duolingo.com/comment/10579104

Hei!

January 7, 2016

19 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Hohenems

Thanks for the series of lessons, and...
Onneksi olkoon!
(Sorry Russia)


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/annika_a

This expression means that although other countries are pretty good, too, there is nothing like Finland.

I've always found this a funny expression, considering how fond Finns are of blue... sorry, bilberries. But I guess those always grew in abundance in the forest, whereas strawberries are rarer, cultivated stuff, and maybe therefore more highly valued.

I love the picture! But I have also always understood it as not referring to Finland as such, but to anyone's home, in the "borta bra, men hemma bäst" sense.

Thanks for the lesson again!


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Zzzzz...

This expression is related to the practice of kaskeaminen (slash-and-burn). Strawberries grew on recently kaskettu land, whereas bilberries grew in areas that belonged to everyone.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/annika_a

Aaah... So it really does refer to your land vs. common land. Thanks! Things you learn on Duolingo part 34243543. Plus a nice reminder of the burned fox! ;-)


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Zzzzz...

Kas, kettu. Hey, look, a fox! :D


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Zzzzz...

VASTAUKSET

Harjoitus 1

  • kauniita naisia
  • pieniä hiiriä
  • suuria perheitä
  • pitkiä päiviä
  • lyhyitä öitä
  • isoja pöllöjä
  • kylmiä järviä
  • suomalaisia nimiä
  • setiä, enoja ja tätejä
  • äitejä ja isiä
  • pieniä herneitä
  • kissoja ja koiria
  • vanhoja kieliä
  • siskoja ja veljiä

Harjoitus 2

  • I have cats and dogs.
  • You have the cats and dogs.
  • The young woman has small children.
  • We have expensive cars.
  • You have daughters and sons.
  • The farmer has cows and pigs.
  • They have the small mushrooms.
  • I have sisters and brothers.
  • We have the large peas.
  • You have Swedish cars.
  • He/she has fish and chickens.
  • You have the fish.
  • They have the beautiful horses.
  • I have uncles.
  • You have the beautiful flowers.

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/widle

Done, kiitos!

I don't really keep any notes for my learning, apart from one diagram of (some of) the cases I made in the early days. But this lesson calls for a big table. :)


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/annika_a

(I read "a kilogram of some of the cases"... Sounded pretty correct, too. :-p)


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Zzzzz...

A table is a good idea. Especially since in the next lesson, I will write about words with three or more syllables. That list is equally long.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/widle

All right. The wall above my computer monitor is currently empty. I think I have just found some use for it. :)


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/chirelchirel

Make room for the plural genitive, since the forms are dependent on the same rules as the plural partitive.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/elizawieslawa

appi - appeja Oh, I was so sure it would be appia because of apet! Even the dictionaries I know show appia... So, my friends, do you know any accurate online source for checking the declension of Finnish words?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Zzzzz...

My internal language computer says appeja. I hope chi and annika see this, since I think a second opinion is needed on this one. :)


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/annika_a

As far as I understand, the declension in this case depends on whether one means father in law or application with "appi".

Only the former has a standard conjugation pattern so far: https://en.m.wiktionary.org/wiki/appi, whereas the latter just has some recommendations: http://www.kielitohtori.fi/suomen-kielenhuollon-kysymys/onko-app-suomeksi-appi-apps-vai-%C3%A4ppi.

I tend to use (mobiili)sovellus a lot if I have to write something formal with a lot of conjugated forms of the word, since it gets messy otherwise.

Let me know if I completely misunderstood the actual question...


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Zzzzz...

So appia then. Perhaps my internal language computer has Savonian software that insist it on being appeja. :P I will wait what chi has to say and edit the lesson after that. :)


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/chirelchirel

Seems like both variations are accepted http://www.kielitoimistonsanakirja.fi/netmot.exe?motportal=80 for father-in-law, the application meaning is still too new and perhaps colloquial to be acknowledged).

By the way, if you need me in some of the newer lessons, drop a line on my profile, so I'll be notified.

Edit. oh, this was not a newer lesson. I have no idea why I missed the notification!


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/elizawieslawa

Ah, I should have expected something like this. Thank you all for clearing this up for me! :)

And thanks Mari for the edit. I think appia is just more logical for a learner like me. :)


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Renan_Finn

In the words ended with " i ", there's words called as "New words" and "Old words" what exactly means this?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/chirelchirel

It's a "simple" rule for explaining which noun group the words belong to (there are a lot of them). "Old words" have a stem ending with -e- that replaces the original -i while "new words" keep their -i-.

Old words are typically things predating a lot of technology, stuff that was around in the stone age or at least before christianity arrived (early middle ages). So you get an idea of the kinds of words in this group: kivi (stone), käsi (hand), järvi (lake), tuuli (wind), kaari (arch), poski (cheek) etc. They are mostly nature related or body parts. Note that this group does have some objects: veitsi (knife)

Even things we don't think of as technological innovations any more belong to the other group: tuoli (chair, from Swedish stol), valli (bank, mound, from Swedish vall) etc.

Unfortunately using this rule requires a lot of knowledge in etymology so its more useful to choose an example word from each group and attach other words to it: käsi is like vesi, vuori is like tuli, takki is like tuoli.

Also, there are some homonyms that behave differently for different meanings: vuori--vuoren (mountain genitive)/vuorin (lining genitive) etc. Usually only one of the words is used a lot, this pair is probably the only one where both words are used often in every day speech. (The other common example kuusi--kuusen (fir tree genitive)/kuuden (six genitive) is not about this stem change, but illustrates the homonym issue well.)

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