Translation:My favorite subject in school is history.
Native speaker with different opinion. "My favorite subject at school is history" is acceptable here. The distinction about physical location and notional location is false.
Quite. Not a native speaker here, but have seen "at school" referring to anything than concerns studying tons of times; I have just googled "subject at school" and came up immediately with two relevant wiki hits: https://www.wikihow.com/Choose-the-Right-Subjects-at-School https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subject_(school)
why in here the subject has to be in instrumental case? Thanks for the answer in advanced!
In this sentence subject is historia - so, like in previous lessons: historia (N) jest moim ulubionym przedmiotem (I) w szkole (Locative)
Well, the subject is the part that's in the nominative, so in this case, the subject is the last part of the sentence.
But how come the first part is in the instrumental and the last part is in the nominative? Here's my understanding of why.
A "jest" sentence like these always has an "identity" and a "description". The identity tells the listener which thing you're talking about; the description tells the listener some fact about that thing. In this sentence, the identity is "history" and the description is "my favorite subject in school".
The identity goes in the nominative, and the description goes in the instrumental.
Meanwhile, sentences like these have a "topic" and a "comment". The topic is essentially a question that the sentence answers, and the comment is the answer. In this sentence, the topic (question) is "my favorite subject in school", and the comment (answer) is "history".
The topic comes first in the sentence, and the comment goes last.
Most of the time, the identity is the topic and the description is the comment, so the nominative ends up coming first.
In this sentence, however, the description is the topic and the identity is the comment, so the instrumental ends up coming first.
Native Polish speakers, how did I do? :D
Makes sense to me ;) Good job. Yes, this sentence is like an answer to the question "What is your favourite school subject?", so the subject part comes first. You could have also been talking about history in general and say "By the way, history is my favourite school subject" and then history part comes first.
I'd add that my rule of thumb for 'what can actually take Instrumental' is if it makes sense for it to take an indefinite article. Well, "a history" may make sense in other contexts, but not here, as it would be like "a geography" or "a mathematics". Meanwhile, "a subject" (History is a subject) makes perfect sense. Only "subject" can take Instrumental in this sentence.
What about: "Mój ulubiony przedmiot w szkole jest historią"? Is that correct to say?
It feels double weird.
Because "jest historią" connects more easly to "is a history/a story",
and because "Mój ulubiony przedmiot jest fizyką/matematyką/geografią etc" is weird.
I think in the my/his/... favourite/most hated/... noun is noun/personal pronoun ,
if you use "jest" the "favourite" part needs to be in instrumental.
Ah, okay. And what about the question: "Jaki jest twój ulubiony zawód?" Would it be weird for either side of "jest" to be in Instrumental?
That depends on answer. If the answer is "a pilot", "a nurse", etc then yes, it may be illogical, but the answer is "moim ulubionym zawodem jest", if the answer is descriptive "mój ulubiony zawód to taki który" "mój ulubiony zawód jest interesujący" .
You can always say "mój ulubiony zawód to pilot."
(and I do not think anybody above 10 has "ulubiony zawód" , wymarzony- dream job, najlepsza praca- best job/work)
if you want to be nitpicking : Jaki jest twój ulubiony zawód technically is a question of description it literally means "what is your favourite occupation like"
Literally "What is your favourite job" means "Co jest twoim ulubionym zawodem?"
"Historia" is history as a subject while "dzieje" can be history as a phenomenon. Is my understanding of that correct?
Not completely, "historia" is a school subject about history. And both are called "historia". "Dzieje" is a synonym for "historia" but it is used less often and in slightly different contexts.
And does it work in reverse order? "Historia jest moim ulubionym przediotem w szkole."