"Women like colorful umbrellas."
Translation:Kobiety lubią kolorowe parasole.
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In plural nouns and also adjectives which describe them are splitted into two categories masculine-personal (masculine nouns which name people) and non-masculine-personal (feminine, neuter and masculine nouns which don't name people - things and animals) "Parasol" (singular) is masculine but it is a thing so in plural it is non-masculine-personal. Moreover it is used in Accusative.
So the adjective "kolorowy" has to agree with a non-masculine-personal noun used in Accustaive case. Therefore you have to know the pattern in which adjective "kolorowy" is declined. Click on the text "decension of kolorowy" and then check plural -> other -> Accusative: https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/kolorowy
Standard ending for adjectives in non-masculine-personal plural nominative/accusative/vocative.
Full ending table here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polish_grammar#Adjectives
"parasol" and "parasolka" may be synonyms, although they don't have to.
"parasol" is a basic word for both an umbrella and a parasol (this one actually makes more sense etymologically), "parasolka" is definitely an umbrella, in theory it's a smaller one, rather for women. I personally wouldn't care for the last part, I am alright with the idea of carrying "parasolka" myself.
Parasolka is a feminine word for a parasol, it may be smaller and it's a softer, gentler word. Polish people often like to use 'child speech' and say 'chlebek' instead of 'chleb' - bread, 'masełko' instead of 'masło' - butter, etc. This way of speaking is a little annoying but unfortunately extremely common.
I am not sure what gave you the idea of the "ly" ending. I am trying to remember some words with -l ending and they all form plural (nominative and accusative) ending -le. Like eg. mol --> mole (moth), sól --> sole (salt), bal --> bale (ball), ból --> bóle (pain).
The words ending in "ł" would definitely be changeing into -ły (not ly). So you have stół --> stoły (table), dół --> doły (bottom, hole), wół --> woły (ox). Nothing else comes to my mind right now, I'll let you know if I have a second thought.
It sounds a little strange. Just because in Polish adjectives go mostly before the nouns unless they are categorizing adjectives. So, in this particular example "parasole kolorowe" would be a category of umbrellas (colorful, not plain) and "kolorowe parasole" are just colorful umbrellas.