"Call me later."
Translation:Zadzwoń do mnie później.
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I think that what's usually (not always, I believe) is "dla mnie" (for me) vs "mi". Here it would be just wrong, maaaybe unless you meant "please come back in two hours and ring a bell to wake me up" or something like that. You surely can't say "zadzwoń mi" in the context of a phone call.
Dzwoń is imperfective (do it several times, cotinuously), zadzwoń is perfective (do it once).
Zadzwoń do mnie wieczorem. - Give me a call in the evening.
Dzwoń do mnie częściej. - Call me more often.
In case you meant to write dzwonię, that doesn't work here at all, because it is the indicative mood (I call), but since we are making a request we need the imperative mood (call!).
Yes, in such sentences the meaning changes depending on where you put the adverb (new information comes last).
Później do mnie zadzwoń. - The thing that you need to do later is call me.
Zadzwoń do mnie później. - I can't talk right now, so call me later.
Później zadzwoń do mnie. - The person you need to call later is me.
Do mnie zadzwoń później. - I am the person who you need to call later.
It does, "do" + Genitive. Think of it as "a phone call to someone".
Sometimes it can also take "na" + Accusative (dzwonić na policję = to call the police, same for some similar contexts) or "po" + Accusative (when you want someone to come to your place and that's why you call them, so also, among others, "dzwonić po policję").
A translation of "to call" that doesn't take a preposition is "wołać", but that is "calling someone" as in shouting "George, dinner is ready, come here!".