"I have a sandwich and fruit."
Translation:Mam kanapkę i owoce.
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With "mieć" (to have) you use Accusative. "Kanapka" is a feminine noun so in Accusative it becomes "kanapkę". "Owoce" is plural form of "owoc" (masculine noun). Here Accusative form is the same as Nominative form. Look at the tables of declension: https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/kanapka https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/owoc
I see her.
She sees me.
Polish has much more complicated case system than English. We have 7 cases.
Nominative is a "dictionary" form of word (in singular) is a case used for subject of the sentence, when the noun/pronoun is the one "active", doing a thing, when you would use "I" in a sentence. also if a sentence has "to jest" phrase in it.
Accusative is for direct object. I see her, I eat fruit. I have a sandwich
Most verbs in Polish (in positive statements) need object in accusative case. Also there are some prepositions that need nouns in accusative.
Well, the problem is that English generally uses the form "fruit" as the plural form. If it was a singular fruit here, that would need to be "a fruit" rather than "fruit".
Now, "mieć" (to have) takes a direct object in Accusative. In Accusative some genders have forms identical to Nominative (the basic one), and some identical to Genitive (you haven't encountered it yet, so let's just say that they 'change').
Accusative is identical to Nominative for: masculine inanimate nouns, neuter nouns, 'not masculine-personal plural' nouns (plural words that do not describe male people).
Accusative is different (and identical to Genitive) for: masculine animate nouns, feminine nouns, 'masculine-personal plural' nouns.
"owoc" is masculine inanimate, so it would still be "owoc" in Accusative. But as here we have plural "owoce"... it's also among those that do not change their form, it's still "owoce".
Ok so in that situation, (if owoć gets treated as masculine singular animate in accusative) how would it be declined?
Cos its sort of going against what you replied originally to Kristine.
But I do realise that this is a side-issue. The original sentence is referring to plural fruits so animate or not doesnt matter- it wouldn't decline anyway as you said :)
Not all food, but mostly fruits and vegetables - although there are also some other nouns treated like that. The way they are treated may depend on the person, fruits and vegetables are those that are definitely treated as animate 'most widely'.
But that only matters for masculine singular nouns in Accusative.
Please let us know "what" it is that you feel you are guessing.
The language in general is quite difficult, but if you break it down into small steps, it eventually comes together and ties up nicely.
Of course if you mean 'generally' then I can't really help, but if you can point out anything specific that you feel you are "guessing", the chances are that someone will be able to tell u how it works :)
I am having real difficulty in how the endings change on verbs and even on nouns (kobieta kobietą etc). Is this just something that I need to go away and just learn them all by memory, because I'm struggling to understand the rules for changing them. I'm at the stage on Polish Duolingo where I seem to be guessing these endings. I'd say my Scottish Gaelic level is similar, but I seem to be getting on better with it because the rules of it make sense to me (up until now!)