Translation:We are married.
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The word "małżeństwo" has two meanings:
małżeństwo - marriage/the institution/the legal act of marriage/the state of the union małżeństwo/para małżeńska/mąż i żona - married couple/husband and wife/spouses
to get married - pobrać się / zawrzeć związek małżeński / związać węzeł małżeński
Jesteśmy pobrani/Jesteśmy związani związkiem małżeńskim - We are married Jesteśmy małżeństwem/Jesteśmy małżonkami - We are a married couple/spouses
What if you and your friend have husbands at home and you're out at a bar and someone starts flirting with you both and one of you says "sorry, we are married". I'm guessing you can't say "jesteśmy małżeństwem" because that's saying you are married to each other? What would you say instead?
Yes, that would definitely mean that they are married to each other ;)
Very interesting question. A married man (or if you prefer: a person married to a woman) uses the adjective "żonaty". So they would say "Jesteśmy żonaci".
A married woman (or 'a person married to a man') uses the adjective "zamężny", so in this scenario "Jesteśmy zamężne". I feel that using the noun "mężatka" (a married woman) would be more common though - "Jesteśmy mężatkami".
Possibly also simple "We have wives/We have husbands": "Mamy żony/Mamy mężów".
This is not what the instrumental case does, and "małżeństwo" (or "małżeństwem" in instrumental) is not an adjective.
Two main functions of this case is to tell what object/tool was used to perform an action (an equivalent of "with X" in English) and it's the case that nouns turn into in "NOUN(Nominative) jest NOUN(instrumental)" sentences.
This specific sentence translates into "We are married", because that's what you would say in English. If we tried to translate it literally, it would be "We are a marriage".