Can someone explain Polish cases to me?
I speak German btw.
Polish cases are used to determine a noun's place in the sentence. In German, this affects articles, and some possessive pronouns, but in Polish it actually changes a noun's suffix. Here are the basics of the cases:
Nominative: Subject of the sentence, does not affect the noun.
Accusative: Direct object of the sentence.
Dative: Indirect object of the sentence.
Genitive: Used to demonstrate possession, and used during negation.
Instrumental: Shows that the object is acted upon "with" or "by means of" this.
Locative: Shows direction.
Vocative: Used when directly addressing someone.
These are the basics, so take this explanation with a grain of salt... there are more in-depth descriptions about cases on many sites, with a list of suffixes.
What I like about Polish case names is that they explain some of their uses. Of course this is simplification.
Nominative – Mianownik – Namer: It names stuff, used also as a sentence subject.
Genitive – Dopełniacz – Filler: Expresses the lack of something (so might appear in certain negations). Also used for an object owned.
Dative – Celownik – Purposer: Expresses for whom the action is being performed.
Accusative – Biernik – Passiver: Expresses what the action is performed on.
Instrumental – Narzędnik – Tooler/Instrumental: Expresses the object used to perform an action, also used (with „z” preposition) to say the companions who participate in an action together with the main subject.
Locative – Miejscownik – Placer/Locative: The name might be misguiding. It's used only with certain prepositions and can be used to express certain locations, but not all of them, and it's not just used for locations.
Vocative – Wołacz – Caller/Vocative: Used when adressing someone. Nowadays, for first names, nominative is more common, but it's still required for professions etc.
Namer: To jest Piotrek – This is Piotrek
Filler: Potrzebujemy mleka – We need milk
Purposer: Malujemy dom Piotrkowi – We are painting a house for Piotrek
Passiver: Głaszczę kota – I'm petting a cat
Instrumental: Jadę samochodem – I'm driving a car
Locative: Jesteśmy w Warszawie – We're in Warsaw
Vocative: (Panie) doktorze,… – (Mr.) doctor,…
PS: The link posted earlier explains it in greater detail, of course.
Do you mean cases, declension or both?
CASES do you know names and basic rules of German cases?, read about Polish cases and decide when it is the same and when not. / I think genitive in German often translates to genitive in Polish/
there are verbs and/or prepositions that "rule" object case and like in German after one preposition two cases are possible one for "motion" and one for "static" (if there are more, then it's verb+prepositon "rule")
DECLINATION nouns or adjectives+nouns change according to the case. In German it's prepositions, and sometimes few letters at the end (my German grammar very is rusty)
In Polish it's the endings and they are different depending on gender, and last letters and there are 10 tables for nouns and many exceptions.
These are simplified charts that are very useful to print out: http://www.polish-translators.com/deklinacja.html http://www.polish-translators.com/przymiotniki.html
As far as exceptions, usually if you look into the structure of the word (try Wiktionary or a Google search) you can find reasons why these exceptions exist. Sometimes they have specific/recognizable suffixes, for example, or something else along those lines.
Also, for verbs: http://www.polish-dictionary.com/polish-verb-classes
I found this one - pl.wiktionary.org but there should be some in English http://grzegorj.w.interiowo.pl/gram/en/odmiana1.html