because screw them, that's why)
I only use a german-polish dictionary, and though they have many translations for "to arrive", they don't translate dotrzec as arriving exactly (but as "gelangen"). So to me, there's the idea of it being difficult, "they finally made it through to germany (after many trials)", sort of. Is there that kind of connotation in the polish term?
No, not after many trials. Maybe it would be easier if we had a specific city, because "do Niemiec" may be a bit confusing (does it imply the Polish-German border, or just the destination which happens to be in Germany?)
So "Pociąg dotarł do Berlina" just means that the train reached Berlin. Actually it doesn't have to be the final destination of the train.
I cannot guarantee that there's no situation like that, but no, I do not think so.
Probably should also accept the English contraction, "The train's arrived..."
Ah, it's one of those contractions that aren't accepted automatically. Sure, added.
How would you say "the train arrived FROM Germany"? As if you were waiting for your parents to arrive.
I guess "przyjechał z Niemiec". More like 'came from Germany', but staying with 'arrived' in such a sentence sounds wrong to me in Polish.
the train is inanimate and by attaching a male gender verb "he arrived" makes the construction misleading.
Where do you have any "he"? Or do you just mean that the word "pociąg" is masculine? Every noun in Polish has a gender, otherwise we wouldn't be even able to construct a sentence like this.